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Classification of Matter
Matter: anything with mass.
Energy is not matter
substance: same
composition throughout
mixture: variable
composition; more than
one phase
Pure Substances:
contain only one
kind of substance
Elements: contain only one
kind of atom. The chemical
symbol only has one capital
Compounds: contain two
or more elements bonded
together chemically. The
chemical formula contains
two or more capital letters
Matter: banana, sugar(C12H22O11),
water, air, granite rock, CO2, O2,
salt water(H2O), aluminum(Al),
gold ring, gold(Au), sulfur(S)
mixtures: air, salt
water, gold ring
Elements: O2,
aluminum(Al), gold(Au),
Pure Substances:
water(H2O), CO2, O2,
aluminum(Al), gold(Au),
sugar(C12H22O11), water
(H2O), CO2,
Elements Versus Compounds
Just what is the difference between a compound and an element? There are over 114
known elements: these are listed in the periodic table, and they make up all matter in the
universe: rocks, stars, dust and living beings. Each element is made up of only one kind
of atom, meaning that each atom has a specific number of protons.
As mentioned, elements have to react chemically to form compounds. As atoms bond,
energy is either released or absorbed. The reverse can also take place. When a compound
decomposes, we often see its two components released, and if one of them is a gas, the
leftover solid or liquid will weigh less than the original solid or liquid that decomposed.
Example: 2 HgO(s)--> 2Hg(s) + O2(g)
432 g --> 400 g + 32g
Also the original solid (HgO) and the product (Hg) are not the same colour. HgO is red
and Hg is shiny and silvery. We have gas escaping (as suggested by the loss in solid
mass: 432 vs. 400g) and a solid that is different from the original (difference in colour);
the combination of these two observations suggest a chemical change.(see later notes)
If we had iodine going from a shiny solid to a purple gas, we would again observe an
apparent loss in solid mass, but the solid left behind would not be of a different colour.
Also in this physical change(sublimation) the iodine gas would turn back into shiny
iodine crystals upon cooling. In the chemical reaction involving HgO, the oxygen gas
escaping would not turn back into red HgO powder.