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Unit 1
What is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of matter and its interactions.
We will study the following properties of matter:
• composition
• properties
• interactions
• changes
How will matter be studied?
Using the scientific method.
What is the Scientific Method?
Logical approach to exploring a problem or
question that has been raised through observation.
Designed to produce a solution or answer that can
be tested, retested, and supported by
What are the steps of the
Scientific Method?
1.State the problem.
2.Gather information about the problem.
3.Form a hypothesis.
4.Test hypothesis.
- variables
- controlled experiments
5.Gather and organize data and observations.
6.Interpret data.
7.Form a conclusion.
What happens to a hypothesis?
Model: An explanation of how phenomena occur
and how data or events are related.
Theory: A broad generalization that explains a
body of facts or phenomena.
Scientific Law: Statement or mathematical
expression about behavior of the natural world.
Use the following terms to organize a Concept
Map for matter.
•Can it be separated?
•Is composition uniform?
•Can it be decomposed by
ordinary chemical means?
•Pure Substance
•Heterogeneous mixture
•Homogeneous mixture
•Stainless steel
•Sodium chloride
Matter – anything that has mass and volume.
How is matter classified?
Matter is broken down into two major categories
- Pure Substance
- Mixture
Pure Substance
- Have unique properties
- Cannot be separated by physical means
- There are two categories of pure substances:
Elements and Compounds
- simplest pure substances
- contain only one kind of atom
- cannot be broken down by physical or chemical
- unique physical and chemical properties
- substance composed of 2 or more elements that
are chemically combined
- have unique chemical and physical properties
- can be broken down chemically (not physically)
- properties of elements that compounds are broken
down into do not resemble properties of original
- always break down to the same proportion by
- Collection of 2 or more pure substances
physically mixed together. (No chemical formula)
- Properties vary depending on what is in the
- Composition can vary (no definite proportion)
- There are 2 types of mixtures:
Homogeneous Mixture
- Substances are distributed evenly throughout the
- All regions are identical in their composition and
Heterogeneous Mixture
- Substances are not evenly distributed throughout
the mixture
- Some regions have different properties than
Classification of Matter
Matter is described by its properties
Extensive Properties
- Depend on how much of a substance there is
- Not useful in identifying the substance.
Intensive Properties
- Properties that do not depend on size.
- Can be useful in identifying the substance.
Comparing Extensive and
Intensive Properties
Physical Properties
- Characteristics that can be observed without
changing the substance.
- Melting point and boiling point are examples
Physical Change
- Change in a substance that does not involve
a change in the identity of the substance.
- Phase changes are examples:
solid to liquid
liquid to solid
liquid to gas
gas to liquid
solid to gas
gas to solid
Phase Changes are also
called changes in state.
There are 4 states of matter:
Phase Diagrams
A phase diagram is a graph of pressure versus
temperature that shows the conditions under which
the phases of a substance exist.
The triple point of a substance indicates the
temperature and pressure conditions at which the
solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can coexist
at equilibrium.
The critical point of a substance indicates the critical
temperature and critical pressure.
Phase Diagram
Phase Diagram
Phase Diagram for CO2
Changes of State - Summary
Water in Three States
Heating Curve for Water
Heat of Fusion: The amount of energy as heat
required to melt a solid at the solid’s melting
Heat of Vaporization: The amount of energy
as heat that is needed to vaporize a liquid at
the liquid’s boiling point at constant pressure
Chemical Properties
- characteristics that describe how a
substance interacts (or fails to interact) with
other substances.
Chemical Change
- also called a chemical reaction
- change that results in production of 1 or
more substances that differ in chemical
properties and composition from the original
Chemical Reaction
Evidence of a Chemical Change
Comparison of Physical and
Chemical Properties
Comparing Physical and Chemical
Comparing Chemical and Physical
Periodic Table of the Elements
Review Questions
Matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume is?
Why is air considered a mixture and not a compound?
How do compounds differ from mixtures?
Is each of the following a chemical or physical property?
A. Its mass is 124.3 g.
B. It is a shiny solid at room temperature.
C. It is easily etched by nitric acid.
D. It melts when heated to 670°C.
E. It is 31.7 centimeters long.
F. It is a good heat conductor.
G. It burns in air.
H. It is a good conductor of electrical energy
Describe the difference between a chemical change and a
physical change. Give one example of each kind of