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Physical Science
Ch. 17
Section 1
Composition of Matter
Composition of Matter
• Substance
–An element or a compound
• Elements
–Substance with all the same
• Compounds
–Substance with atoms from
two or more elements
• Heterogeneous Mixture
–Where materials can
easily be distinguished
• Homogeneous Mixture
–Contains 2 or more
substances blended
evenly throughout
• Solution
–Homogeneous mixture where
particles are so small they cant be
seen with a microscope or filtered.
• Colloid
–Homogeneous mixture that never
• Tyndall Effect
–Scattering of light by a colloid
• Suspension
–Heterogeneous mixture containing a
liquid where the particles settle out.
Ex. Elements
H, O, Ca
Ex. H20
Ex. Coke
Ex. Jello
Ex. Mud
Section 2
Properties of Matter
• Physical Properties
–Characteristics of a material
which can be observed
without changing the
• Ex. include color, shape, size,
melting point, & boiling point
–Physical properties such as
size and magnetism can be
used to separate mixtures.
Physical Properties
• Appearance
–physical description of a
• Behavior
–how a substance acts
•Ex. magnetism, viscosity,
• Physical change
–Change in substance’s size,
shape, or state of matter
• A Substance does not change
identity when it undergoes a
physical change
• Distillation
–a process for separating a
mixture by evaporating a
liquid & condensing its
• Chemical property
–Characteristics of a
substance indicating
that it can change
•Ex. Flammability or light
sensitivity of a substance
• Chemical Change
–When one substance changes
to another substance
• Can be indicated by
temperature change, bubble
formation, or smell
• Can occur very slowly such as
the formation of rust.
• Can be used to separate
substances such as metals
from their ores.
• Weathering of Earth’s surface
involves both physical and
chemical changes.
–Physical changes
• big rocks split into smaller ones;
streams carry rock particles
from one location to another
–Chemical changes
• can occur in rocks when calcium
carbonate in limestone changes
to calcium hydrogen carbonate
due to acid rain.
Law of Conservation of Mass
–Mass of all substances
present before a chemical
change equals the mass of
all substances after the
–Mass can neither be created
or destroyed it just changes