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CHAPTER 17
Get ready to take notes!
CLASSIFICATION OF
MATTER
Composition of Matter
I.
Substance
is either
an element
or a compound.
A.
When all the atoms in a
substance are alike, the
substance is an element.
1.
A compound is a substance
with two or more elements
combined in a fixed proportion.2.
Two or more substances that
can be easily separated by
physical means
form a mixture.
B.
Heterogeneous mixture
mixture of different & easily
distinguishable materials. 1.
Homogeneous mixture
•contains 2 or
more gaseous,
liquid, or solid
substances
blended evenly.
•also called a
solution.
2.
Colloid -
heterogeneous mixture
with larger particles that
never settle.
3.
Colloids scatter light in the
Tyndall effect.
3.
A heterogeneous mixture
containing
a liquid
in which
visible
particles
settle
is called a
suspension.4.
Properties of Matter
II.
Physical property characteristic of a
material which can be
observed without
changing the identity
of the substances in
the material. Ex:
A.
shape,
e
siz ,
melting point,
and boiling
point.
Appearance
- physical description
of a substance.
1.
Behavior - how a substance acts.
ductility
magnetism
viscosity
2.
Physical properties such
as size and
magnetism
can be
used to
separate
mixtures.
3.
Physical change
change in a
substance’s
size, shape,
or state of matter.
B.
A substance does
not change identity
when it undergoes a
physical change.
1.
Distillation is a process
for separating a mixture
by evaporating a
liquid and
condensing
its vapor.
2.
Chemical property characteristics of a
substance indicating
that it can change
chemically. Ex:
C.
flammability
light
sensitivity
When one substance
changes to another
substance, a chemical
change has
occurred.
fD.
Some chemical
changes are indicated
by temperature
change,
smell,
or bubble
formation.
1.
Other chemical changes
occur very slowly such
as the formation of rust.
2.
Chemical
changes
can be used
to separate
substances
such as
metals from
their ores.
3.
Weathering
of Earth’s
surface
involves
both
physical
and
chemical
changes.
E.
Physical changes cause
big rocks to split into
smaller
ones;
streams
carry
rock particles from
one location to another.
1.
Chemical changes
can occur in rocks
when calcium
carbonate
in limestone
changes due
to acid rain.
2.
Law of Conservation
of Mass - Mass of all
substances present
before a chemical
change equals the
mass of all substances
after the change.
F.
THE END