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Unit 5 Vocabulary Flash Cards
Binary fission
Domain of prokaryotes (single celled & no
nucleus) that live in extreme conditions
and environments
Domain of prokaryotes (single celled & no
nucleus) that usually have a cell wall and that
usually reproduce by cell division
A microscopic particle that invades cells and
takes them over because it cannot reproduce on
its own; many cause disease like AIDS, HIV,
flu, common cold
Type of asexual reproduction where a single
celled organism splits into two single celled
organisms with identical DNA to the
original cell
Kingdom of eukaryotic (has a nucleus) that
are unicellular and are either heterotrophs
or autotrophs; split into fungus-like, plant-like,
and animal-like
A living organism that is invaded by a virus
or parasite and fed upon
Reproductive cell of many types of fungi
Kingdom of mostly multicellular organisms
that are decomposers; many reproduce
using spores
Sex cells, sperm for males and egg cells
for females
Multicellular plant-like protists that make their
own food through photosynthesis
Partnership between fungi and plants where
the fungi grow on or in the roots of plants and
help the roots absorb minerals and the plants
give the fungi nutrients
Chains of threadlike filaments on fungi that
make up the body of the fungus
Organisms that make their own food,
usually through photosynthesis; also known
as autotrophs
Partnership between fungi and green algae
or cyanobacterium where the fungi provides
protection, water, and minerals and the algae
or cyanobacterium provides the nutrients
through photosynthesis
Vascular system
Cellular respiration
Green pigment in the chloroplast that captures
the sunlight to use for photosynthesis
Process where an organism uses sunlight,
carbon dioxide, and water into glucose (sugar)
and oxygen to make their own energy
Baby plant, or plant embryo, that has a
protective coating on the outside
System of tube-like tissues that transport
water, nutrients, and minerals from one part
of the plant to another; this allows the
plant to grow tall
Vascular plants that make seeds that are
not covered by a fruit, most are
covered by cones
Holds the sperm of the plant
Plants that do not have tube-like tissues to
transport water, food, and minerals; the water
has to seep from one cell to the next; this keeps
the plants short and growing in wet environments
Vascular tissues or tubes that carry food make
in the leaves to the rest of the plant
Male reproductive part of the flower,
several of them are found surrounding the
pistil and make the pollen, or sperm
of the plant
The process where the pollen from the stamen
lands on the pistil of the flower
Vascular plants that make flowers; the
flowers make a fruit that protects the
seed(s) inside
Vascular tissue or tube that carries water
and dissolved minerals from the roots of
the plants up to the leaves
Female reproductive part of the flower,
found in the middle or center of the flower
and has the egg cell in the ovary at the bottom
The process where the mitochondria of a
cell breaks down glucose with oxygen to
make carbon dioxide, water, and energy
in the form of ATP; done in both plant
& animal cells
Anything that causes a reaction or change
in an organism; ex: gravity, light, water,
a chemical, food, sound
A plants growth in response to a stimulus;
ex: stems & leaves grows towards the light, roots
grow down to where gravity is pulling on them
The process where the stem and leaves
grow towards the light source to get more
light for photosynthesis
Process where the sperm combines with the
egg cell to make a fertilized egg cell, or zygote
The loss of water through the leaf of a plant
The process when plants shut down their
growth due to less sunlight or water and lose
their leaves until the amount of sunlight or
water increases; similar to hibernation in animals
Animals without a backbone
Organisms that cannot make their own food
and must eat or absorb the nutrients to get
energy; also known as a heterotroph
Animals that have a backbone
Skeleton, or bones, on the outside of the
animal, like arthropods; goes crunch then
squish when you step on them
Another name for cold-blooded; animals
that have a body temperature that changes
with the outside temperature
Skeleton, or bones, on the inside of the animal,
like echinoderms or fish; goes squish then
crunch when you step on them
Type of symmetry where the animal is
irregular in shape and doesn’t have any
symmetry; no symmetry; sponges are the
only animals with this type of symmetry
Another name for warm-blooded; animals
that have a constant internal (inside) body
temperature no matter how cold or hot
it is outside
Radial symmetry
Bilateral symmetry
Type of symmetry where the two sides seem
to mirror each other if you drew a line down the
center; most animal have this type of symmetry
Type of symmetry where the body parts seem
to come out in all directions from a central point,
like spokes on a wheel; all echinoderms &
cnidarians have this type of symmetry
Phylum of invertebrates that filter food from
the ocean water through their pores and have cells
but no tissues, organs, or systems; ex: sponges
The ability of an organism to grow back
missing body parts; worms and echinoderms
can do this
Phylum of invertebrates that have nematocysts
that sting their prey and paralyze it before pulling
their prey into their mouth; mouth is the only
opening; cell & tissues, not organs or systems;
ex: jellyfish, sea anemone, hydra, & coral
Phylum of invertebrates that have comb-like
rows of cilia that help them move around;
made of cells and tissues, no organs or
systems; ex: comb jellies
Flatworms; phylum of invertebrates that have
cells and simple tissues, no organs or systems,
one opening the mouth, eye spots for eyes, flat
shaped body, can regenerate, most are parasitic;
ex: fluke, tapeworm, planaria
Phylum of invertebrates that have radial
symmetry, a water vascular system, spiny skin,
tube feet, and an endoskeleton; made up of cells,
tissues, organs, and systems; ex: starfish, sea
cucumber, sea urchin, sand dollar
Phylum of invertebrates that have soft bodies
with a mantle that makes the shell, a muscular
foot, and cells, tissues, organs, & simple systems;
three classes; cephalopod, gastropod, & bivalve
Roundworms; phylum of invertebrates that
regenerate, have round bodies, cells tissues, and
simple organs, and are parasites that
cause diseases; ex: hookworm
Phylum of invertebrates with an exoskeleton,
jointed appendages, mandible for chewing, cells,
tissues, organs, & systems; 4 classes: insects,
arachnids, crustaceans, myriapods
Segmented worm, phylum of invertebrates
that have segmented bodies, cells, tissues,
organs, & systems, regenerate; ex: leech,
Mollusk class with animals that crawl along on
the stomach foot and leave a slimy trail, many
have an external shell or shell on the outside of
their body, eyestalks; ex: slug, snail, sea slug or
neudabranch, sea snail, sea butter fly
Phylum that means vertebrate or animals
with a backbone
Complete metamorphosis
Incomplete metamorphosis
Class of mollusk that has a head foot broken up
into tentacles, most have a piece of a shell on
the inside, except the nautilus with an external
shell and the octopus with no shell,
Class of mollusks that has two shells on the
outside, a hatchet foot that helps them dig down
into the sandy bottom of the ocean or water,
filter feeder, makes pearls; ex: clam, scallop,
mussel, oyster
Class of arthropod with many segmented bodies
and either one or two pair of legs per segment,
one pair of antennae; ex: centipede (one pair
legs per segment), millipede (two pair of
legs per segment)
Class of arthropod with a 3 segmented body,
head, thorax, & abdomen, 3 pair of legs, and
one pair of antennae, goes through either
complete or incomplete metamorphosis;
ex; bee, fly, beetle, grasshopper, dragonfly
Class of arthropod with a 2 segmented body,
cephalothorax and abdomen, no antennae,
4 pair of legs; ex: spider, mite, tick, scorpion,
horseshoe crab
Class of arthropod with a 2 segmented body,
cephalothorax and abdomen, 2 pair of antennae,
& both walking and swimming legs (swimmerets);
ex: lobster, crab, shrimp, barnacle
Gradual change in the body of an insect
where it goes through the stages of egg,
nymph, adult and gradually changes its body
as it grows and molts
Complete change in the body of an insect where
it goes through the stages of egg, larva, pupa,
adult, in the pupa stage, the animal makes
a chrysalis or cocoon and completely changes
its internal body
Second stage of complete metamorphosis
where the insect spends all its time eating to
build up enough energy to go through the
next stage; ex: maggot, caterpillar, grub
Stage of incomplete metamorphosis where the
baby insect looks like a smaller version of the
adult, it needs to continue to molt and grow
larger, on the last molt it will grow wings and
its reproductive organs start working
The process where an arthropod sheds its
exoskeleton and grows a new one
Third stage of complete metamorphosis where
the insect goes into a cocoon or chrysalis and
completely changes it form
Class of chordate (vertebrate) where animals
have thin skins they breathe through when they
hibernate, go through metamorphosis, breathe
with gills when a tadpole and lungs as an adult
and lay jelly-like eggs in water; ex: frog,
salamander, toad, newt
Class of chordate (vertebrate) where the animals
live in water, breathe with gills, and lay eggs in
the water, most have paired fins, a gill slit cover,
and a swim bladder; ex: shark, lancet, goldfish
Innate behavior
Learned behavior
Territorial imperative
Social hierarchy
Social behavior
Class of chordate (vertebrate) where the animal
has feathers and most can fly, hard shell egg
with stored food and water inside, beak or bill
and hollow bones; ex: penguin, robin, blue jay
Class of chordate (vertebrate) where the animal
has dry skin covered in scales, breathes through
lungs all its life, lays leathery egg with stored
food and water inside; ex: snake, crocodile, turtle
Behavior that an animal is born knowing
how to do and does not have to be taught;
ex: spider building a web, yawing, blinking
Class of chordate (vertebrate) where the animal
has mammary glands to nurse the young, hair or
fur on the body, lungs all its life, and most give
birth to live young; ex: human, bat, dog,
elephant, rabbit
The area an animal claims as their own
because it has their shelter, food, water,
and mates in it; this area will be defended
from others
Behavior that is taught to an animal by
watching other animals or from learning
what works and doesn’t work; ex: hunting
skills, working together in a group
The need of an animal to defend its
territory and family from all others by
whatever means necessary
Behavior where an animal acts mean towards
another one or tries to run them away; charging
towards them, growling, baring teeth; done
when defending territory or family
Seasonal movement of animals from one
place to another and back again to follow
the food or water
The behavior where animals form levels in
groups where leaders are at the top and
followers are at the bottom and different
members have different jobs and
responsibilities within the group
Behavior where animals sleep or slow down
their movement during the hotter times of
the day
Behavior of an animal when it shuts down its
body for a long period of time to conserve
energy; usually done to get through a harsh
winter; ex: bears, toads, insects
Behavior where animals of the same species
work together to get something done; ex:
hunting in a pack, building a nest, looking
out for predators
Behavior that happens when animals come
together as a group and learn to work with
each other and help each other to survive