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Transcript
Biology I pre-AP 2013
Unit 15: PHYLOGENY OF LIVING ORGANSIMS: Fungi, and Plants
A. Kingdom Fungi – p. 526-542
1. Describe 4 ways that fungi differ from plants. (Review your “kingdoms” notes)
2. How does fungal digestion differ from animals? (p.527)
3. Describe how fungi are well adapted for absorbing nutrients. Include the words hyphae, mycelium,
and nutrients. (p.528)
4. What is the function of the fruiting body? (p.528)
5. What do fungi normally feed on, in general terms? p.537. Pleurotus ostreatus is an exception.
How does this particular organism obtain its food?
6. How do fungi reproduce? (p.528)
7. What is the role of fungi in the environment? Sometimes the role is helpful while other times it is
harmful. Elaborate about both.
8. Fungi are classified according to how they reproduce. Name the four major groups of fungi and
give examples of each. (Blue titles in section 530)
9. Fungi play an essential role in maintaining equilibrium in ecosystems. Explain. (p.538)
10. Fungi can form symbiotic relationships in environments. Review the picture of a lichen in fig. 2116. What 2 groups of organisms grow together (mutualistic) in lichens? (p. 540)
11. Describe 3 examples of fungi as parasites. (p.538-539)
B . Kingdom Plantae
Describe three characteristics of plants (p.551)
By what process do plants give us oxygen?
Give 5 examples of foods that we eat that are plants. (thought question)
Give five examples of NON-FOOD uses of plants. (thought question)
If all of the plants on earth were to die tomorrow, what effect would that have on the heterotrophs?
(thought question - be specific)
6. Name and describe the 2 plant generations in the plant life cycle. (p.552)
7. What are 4 requirements for plant survival (p.552)
8. What kind of organism did the first plants evolve from? (p.553)
9. Botanists divide the plant kingdom into 4 groups based on 3 important features. Sketch the
cladogram on p.554 fig 22-6. Include the 4 types of plants and their derived characters. Make a
star next to the most numerous of the plant groups (according to the graph on p.555)
10. Describe how bryophytes are adapted to life on land. Give examples of bryophytes. (p.556)
11. Bryophytes do not have vascular tissue. Define vascular tissue. (p.560)
12. Why are bryophytes limited in size and habitat? (p.556)
13. Review the life cycle of a moss. (fig 22-11 p.558) Which generation is dominant: Gametophyte or
Sporophyte?
14. Ferns are an example of a seedless vascular plant. Explain why ferns are better adapted to life on
land than bryophytes.
15. Review the life cycle of a fern. (fig 22-17 p.563) Which generation is dominant: Gametophyte or
Sporophyte?
16. Why are ferns still limited to a tropical habitat? What is required for fertilization to occur? (p.562)
1.
2.
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5.
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4.
C. Vascular Plants (seed plants)
Name the 2 major groups of vascular plants.
Describe 3 adaptations that allow seed plants to reproduce without water. (p.564)
What are gymnosperms? List examples. (p.566)
Describe 2 features of conifer leaves that allow them to survive dry and/or cold conditions. (p.568)
Biology I pre-AP 2013
Unit 15: PHYLOGENY OF LIVING ORGANSIMS: Fungi, and Plants
5. What are angiosperms? List examples (p.569)
6. Describe the structure and function of the unique reproductive structures of flowering plants
(fruits). (p.569 fig 22-24)
7. What are the three principal organs of seed plants? (p.579)
8. Describe three functions of roots. (p.579)
9. Describe four functions of stems.
10. Describe three functions of leaves
11. Name and describe the function of root hairs, epidermis, and vascular tissue.
12. Describe and give the function of the two kinds of vascular tissue: xylem and phloem.
13. Distinguish between taproots and fibrous roots. (p.584)
14. What is the difference between primary growth and secondary growth? (p.590-591)
15. If a tree is 100 feet tall, how does water reach the very top leaves?
16. Some stems are “modified”. Give examples of modified stems. (p.594)
17. What is transpiration? (p. 587)
18. What role do the stomata play in gas exchange? (p.587) Where are the stomata found?
19. Give examples of leaf adaptations (p. 598)
20. Water movement in a plant against the force of gravity is able to occur due to what 2 processes?
21. Explain how nutrients move through the phloem. Include in your explanation, translocation, sink,
source, and the pressure flow hypothesis. (p. 601-602)
22. Write the equation for photosynthesis. Why do plants do both photosynthesis and respiration?
What two products of photosynthesis do animals use?
D. Reproduction with cones (gymnosperm reproduction)
1. What is “alternation of generations”? (p.609)
2. How do gymnosperms reproduce? Sketch the life cycle. (p.611)
3. What is the difference between a pollen cone and a seed cone?
4. What is the difference between pollination and fertilization? (p.610-611)
E. Reproduction with flowers (angiosperm reproduction)
1. Describe the functions of the following parts of a flower: sepals, petals, stamen, carpels
(p.612)
2. How are most flowering plants pollinated? (p.615)
3. Distinguish between self-pollination and cross-pollination.
4. How does cross-pollination increase genetic diversity?
F. Seed Development and germination
1. What is the function of a seed? P.618)
2. Sketch the parts of a seed. (p.616)
3. Why are seeds so well adapted for life on land?
4. Describe 3 ways seeds are dispersed. (p.619)
5. How does an adaptation such as fruit give an evolutionary advantage to a plant?
G. Plant Responses (tropisms)
1. All living cells respond to their environment in some way. How do plants do this? Define
hormone. (p.634)
2. Develop a data table to compare the following plant hormones: auxins, cytokinins, ethylene, and
gibberellins. Include a column for the hormone name and its function. (p.634-638)
3. What is the difference between phototropism and gravitropism? (p.634-635)