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Transcript
GREECE
Classical Civilization

is a broad term for a long period of
cultural history centered on the
Mediterranean Sea, comprising the
interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece
and ancient Rome, collectively known as
the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in
which Greek and Roman society flourished
and wielded great influence throughout
Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
Warm Up
1. HOW DID THE MAJOR RIVER VALLEY
CIVILIZATIONS INFLUENCE CLASSICAL
CIVILIZATIONS?
1. Lay the foundations for political
centralization and organization
2. Monument building
3. Written articulation of legal codes
4. Social classes
5. Economic Trade
6. Technology- Irrigation, weapons, math
7. Religion
Ancient Greece
In this Unit of Study over Greece:
We will identify major causes and describe the major effects
of the following events from 500 BC to AD 600: the
development of the classical civilizations of Greece (1B)
Locate places and regions of historical significance directly
related to major eras and turning points in world history.
(16A)
Identify the characteristics democracy, republic,
oligarchy (19B readiness)
Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizens and
noncitizens in civic participation throughout history
(21 B readiness)
Describe the changing roles of women, children, and families
during major eras of world history. (24 A)
Geography
Sea
– Peninsula
– 1400 island
 Land
– ¾ mountains and
valleys
– 20% suitable
farm land
 Climate

– 48-80 degrees
Greece
Europe
Mediterranean Sea
Africa
2. What are a
few physical
challenges
that the Greek
civilizations
would have to
overcome?
Challenges for Greeks
Trade on the water
 Farm land – enough food for the people —
diet
 Fresh water
 Being united under one religion, leader
(government), language, loyalty
 distance

Mycenaean's
Settled around 2000 BC
 warrior kings
– Invaded Minoans on
Crete & took ideas from
their culture back
 Trade, writing,
language, religion,
decoration
 Trojan War
 Fell about 1200 BC

Mycenaean's on Peloponnesus
Minoans on island of Crete
Helen
The face that could launch a
thousand ships!
Dorian's
1150
to 750 BC – period
of decline
less advanced people
no records exist
oral stories –
Homer
Mythology
Set of myths
 explain world around
them Rich set of myths. Their

mythology explains the actions
of gods and events in nature.
That is to say they used them
to explain the mysteries of
nature and the power of
human passion. In Greek
mythology, the gods often act
like humans. They show
feelings, such as love, hate,
and jealousy. Unlike humans,
though, the gods live forever.
621 BC IN ATHENS
Draco and Draconian Law
Although the exact legislation Draco (Drāco or Drăkōn) codified
in Athens, Greece, is no longer known, legend states the laws
were rigid and excessively harsh even for offenses as menial as
idleness.
Due to riots in Athens, the Alcmaeonidae (aristocratic rulers)
decided that all laws that had been orally passed should be
written in a plainly stated form so that a poor man could avoid
breaking them. Until this time, blood feuds and oral laws which
could be made up at any time were used across Athens and
punishment was often carried out via vendettas. Only the
upper classes were made aware of the laws.
Draco was a legislator in Athens who was authorized by the
Alcmaeonidae to write the law codes around 621 B.C. It
marked the first time the laws in Athens were set down in
writing and they were lauded for their impartiality.
594 BC - Solon’s reforms
Following a war with the city of Megara, the aristocratic rulers
were banished from Athens. Another legislator named Solon was
authorized to re-write the laws of Athens to relieve the misery of
the lower classes.
Between approximately 594 to 614 B.C., the archon or magistrate
began repealing the unnecessarily harsh penalties Draco had
decreed for trivial crimes. Although he drastically reformed the
legal system, Solon retained the death penalty as the punishment
for homicide.
Solon also freed Athenians who had been
enslaved due to debt and returned their land.
Although the changes were unpopular, Solon
also reformed the monetary system, and weights
and measures.
Temple of Athena
PERSIAN
WAR
520 BC Persians, under
Darius, attack Ionia
 490 BC Athens wins
Battle of Marathon
 480-479 BC Xerxes loses
to Athens, losing Persian
War

Athens uses the prestige
gained during the war and
the burst of entering wealth
set eh stage for a dazzling
birth of creativity in Athens
which allowed it to enter its
brief Golden Age.
WHY SIGNIFICANT?
Defeat of the largest
Mesopotamian civilization
which leads to the rise of
the next great civilization the Greeks.
3. How would the Greeks be affected
after the Persian Wars (490-479 BC)?
New confidence and freedom for Greek city-states
Examples
1. Athens begins a golden age and becomes leader
of the 140 city-state Delian League
2. Pericles and Democracy in Athens leads to a
golden age – Establishment of direct democracy,
strengthening of navy and overseas trade, wealth
used to create great works including the
Parthenon
The Acropolis
GOLDEN AGE of ATHENS
(The Age of Pericles)
Arts and sciences reach new
heights
 Pericles reforms Athens
1. Stronger democracy
2. Athenian Empire
3. Glorifying Athens

Pericles


Greek Statesman
Pericles was the most prominent
and influential Greek statesman,
orator and general of Athens
during the Golden Age—specifically,
the time between the Persian and
Peloponnesian wars
4. List some characteristics of Greek art.
 Classical art that addresses order,
balance, and proportion
 Greek drama

Growth of philosophy
True knowledge exists
in knowing that you
know nothing.
-Socrates
5. What does Socrates
mean? How could this quote
affect the people in Greece?
COMPARING
SPARTA & ATHENS
warring city-states
LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY
 inland – on
Macedonia
Peloponnesus
 near ancient
Mycenae
 near coast in
Attica
Mediterranean
Sea
 connected to
port city of
Piraeus
GOVERNMENT
 Totalitarian
military
dictatorship
 Oligarchy
- 2 monarchs
 Gerousia
– Senate
birthplace of
direct
democracy
Agora

– Market place & a place for
assembly
Assembly
 5 Ephors
• Leaders who "swore on behalf of
the city"
LAWS & RIGHTS
controlled
all aspects
of life
to serve and
to excel
made
by
Assembly
Ostracizing
–
to exclude or banish
jury
trial
many
freedoms
6. How did the Greek legal traditions
contribute to the development of
contemporary political systems?
Trial by a jury of your peers
equal justice to all
Need documents to accuse a person-Innocent until proven guilty
Voting- Direct democracy (1person 1 vote)
Passing laws
Speaking at public meetings
Participating in the government
Paying taxes
Serving in the military (Sparta – life-long career)
Following (obeying) laws
Written codes of laws (begun by Solon)
Pericles extends democracy
7. Get an examples of Greek architecture that
influenced American architecture?
columns
MAJOR OCCUPATIONS
soldier
merchant
farmer
 manufacturer
MILITARY TRAINING
mandatory
– Age 11
harsh,
demanding
cadet
voluntary
–
one year
reserves
training was
thorough
Military Successes &
Colonies and Allies
 all
city-states in  Marathon,
Peloponnesus
Salamis
 won war
 defeated
Persian Empire
 Peloponnesian
League
 Asia Minor
colonies
 Delian League
EDUCATION
military
school
private
tutors
 philosophers
SOCIAL CLASSES
Soldiers-
men
female
citizens
foreigners
helots
male
citizens
metics
Females
(non citizens)
slaves
8. LIST THE RIGHTS & RESPONSIBILITIES
OF CITIZENS & NONCITIZENS
In Greece, because Greece was not united, this varied from
city-state to city-state.
Citizens – Men born free who owned property
Rights for citizens included
1. Voting
2. Passing laws
3. Speaking at public meetings
Non-citizens– non- citizens never could become a citizens
1. women (except Sparta)
2. Slaves
3. foreigners
9. What was the role of
women, children and family
in classical Greek city-states?
Life and family in Greece
1. Families – social structure for most societies
2. Women and children – lack of power, influence,
and inequality
3. Sparta boys sent to military school at young age
SLAVERY
helots
worked
shops &
farms
worked
in
in
household
or industry
THE ARTS
basic structures
 beauty was
wimpy
 no drama or
poetry






classical forms
downtown prettier
than home
idealized sculpture
– Represent religion &
their gods
Iliad, Odyssey
dramatists
PELOPONNESIAN
WAR
Sparta vs. Athens
CAUSES
1. Competition for power
2. No permanent unity
3. Spartan concerns of
Athens
IMPORTANT FACTORS
1.
2.
3.
4.
Others helped- not just
Sparta vs. Athens
Strengths- brawn vs. brains
plague
long war- 27 years
RESULTS
1. Many killed- entire generations gone
2.
Weakened power of city-states leads to
Phillip II of Macedonia arrives and conquers
Greece
Conquests bring about end of independent Greek
city-states and blend Greek cultures with eastern
cultures to establish the Hellenistic Age
3. Alexander the Great - 336 BC
4.
Hellenistic Culture = spread of Greek,
Persian, and Egyptian Civilization
9. Explain why the establishment of a Hellenistic
Empire would be considered a great achievement?
The distance that the Hellenistic culture covered and
the fact that it preserved and spread Greek
knowledge across 3 different continents
CULTURAL DIFFUSION 
Hellenistic Era brings
about advancements in
trade, astronomy,
mathematics, philosophy,
and art; Alexandria in
Egypt is center of
Hellenistic world, which
is conquered by Rome in
150 BC
Alexander the Great Videos
Video #1
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RJNgQ
BhAYQI

Video #2
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGPYV
4rKnCQ

Exit Ticket = Thesis Statement

Essay Prompt for Thesis Statement: Choose One
1. Compare and contrast Athens and Sparta and their
influence on Greece’s cultural development?
2. Explain which city-state, Sparta or Athens, had the
best form of government that was set up to succeed
over time? (Oligarchy vs. Democracy)