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Transcript
Artificial Intelligence: Introduction
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
What is AI?
• Acting humanly
– Turing Test (1950)
• The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype
• It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or
human at the other end
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Natural Language Processing
Knowledge Representation
Automated Reasoning
Machine Learning
Computer vision and Robotics
CSE, IIT Kharagpur
2
What is AI?
• Thinking humanly
– Cognitive Science
• The study of how we do what we do
• How to make the computer do it in the same way
• Thinking rationally
– Formal Logic
CSE, IIT Kharagpur
3
Fundamentals
• The notion of expressing computation as an algorithm
• Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem (1931):
– In any language expressive enough to describe the properties of
natural numbers, there are true statements that are undecidable:
that is, their truth cannot be established by any algorithm.
• Church-Turing Thesis (1936):
– The Turing machine is capable of computing any computable
function
– This is the accepted definition of computability
• The notion of intractability
– NP-completeness
– Reduction
CSE, IIT Kharagpur
4
Course Outline
• Problem solving by search
– State space search, Problem reduction search, Game playing
• Logic and deduction
– First-order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction
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•
•
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Planning
Reasoning under Uncertainty
Learning
Additional Topics
CSE, IIT Kharagpur
5