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Transcript
Artificial Intelligence
Course: CS40002
Instructor: Dr. Pallab Dasgupta
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur
What is AI?
„
Turing Test (1950)


The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype
It passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or
human at the other end
• Sufficiency: The Chinese Room Argument
CSE, IIT Kharagpur
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The ability to solve problems
„
Search: Efficient trial-and-error
‹
‹
‹
Enormous computational complexity
Space-time trade-offs
Use of domain knowledge – heuristics
Linear
Prog.
Integer
Prog.
Dynamic
Prog.
Heuristic
Search
Evolutionary
Algorithms
During 1985-1995 computation became free
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Knowledge and Deduction
„
„
„
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How to store and retrieve knowledge?
How to interpret facts and rules, and be able to deduce?
The gap between knowledge and realization
Logics of knowledge
Knowledge
Based
Systems
Expert
Systems
Automated
Theorem
Provers
Formal
Verification
• The knowledge base may be huge
• Between 1990 – 2000 storage became free
CSE, IIT Kharagpur
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The ability to learn
„
Can we learn to solve a problem better?
‹
‹
‹
Learning the answers
Learning the rules of the game
Learning to plan
„
Belief networks
„
Perceptrons and Neural networks
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What then is AI?
Human Computer
interaction
Automated Problem Solving
Machine Learning
Logic and Deduction
Computer vision
NLP
Robotics
In this decade, communication will become free
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Fundamentals
„
The notion of expressing computation as an
algorithm
„
Godel’s Incompleteness Theorem (1931):
‹
In any language expressive enough to describe the
properties of natural numbers, there are true statements that
are undecidable: that is, their truth cannot be established by
any algorithm.
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Fundamentals
„
Church-Turing Thesis (1936):
‹
‹
„
The Turing machine is capable of computing any
computable function
This is the accepted definition of computability
The notion of intractability
‹
‹
NP-completeness
Reduction
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Course Outline
„
Problem solving by search
‹
‹
‹
„
Logic and deduction
‹
„
„
„
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State space search,
Problem reduction search,
Game playing
First-order logic, Temporal logic, Deduction
Planning
Reasoning under Uncertainty
Learning
Additional Topics
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References
„
Artificial Intelligence – A Modern Approach
-- Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig
„
Principles of Artificial Intelligence
-- N J Nilsson
„
Heuristics
-- Judea Pearl
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