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Concept Maps
• Concept Map aka Word Web aka Graphic Organizer
• Starts with a central idea or topic in a bubble
• Related ideas are connected with lines, and words
showing their connection.
1776
Declared independence
United
States
New
Mexic
o
Consists of
50
states
Including
Arizona
st
1
Malena
Hr Welcome Back!
Brigham
Tagipo
Normisha
Angela
Jaime
Abreanna
th
6
Hr Welcome Back!
Aiyana
Leigh
Rebecca
Gerald
Raeana
Chasity
Jenna
th
7
Hr Welcome Back!
• Please check to see if your name moved.
Shanae
Melanie
Kendall
Kiara
Hanna
1/11 Bell Work
Approximately how far would a tire with a 2 foot
diameter roll in 700 revolutions?
Hint: Use circle equations in planner.
1/11 Schedule
• Pop Quiz Ch 13.1-13.2 in desk groups
• Start notes Ch 13.3 “Gene Expression”
• DNA Extraction Lab – look at DNA
• Make sure to use a coverslip.
• Observe low, med, high if possible
• Rinse and return slides and coverslips
If you drop this class, turn in your book!
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 - FRIDAY
Unit : Molecular basis
of Genetics
(DNA, RNA, & Proteins)
Ch 13-14 Objectives
1.
Describe how genes are encoded in DNA.
2.
Explain the molecular basis of heredity.
Ch 13.3 “RNA and GENE
Expression
Objectives
• Describe process of gene expression and the role of RNA.
• Differentiate between transcription and translation.
Protein Review
Chemical structures involved in processes like hemoglobin in
blood, insulin that regulates blood glucose levels, and enzymes
that regulate body functions, are all made of proteins.
Name some parts of the human body that contain proteins.
Remember proteins are often structural materials…
Overview of Gene
Expression
DNA to Protein
• DNA does NOT directly make proteins.
• RNA (ribonucleic acid) takes the information from
DNA and makes proteins.
• Gene expression – proteins produced, DNA is
“switched” on.
Overview of Gene
Expression,
Two Steps
1. Transcription : the process of making RNA from the
information in DNA.
• Ex: Like copying (transcribing) notes from the board (DNA)
to a notebook (RNA).
Overview of Gene
Expression
2 Steps
2. Translation uses the information in RNA to make a
specific protein.
• Translation is like translating a sentence in one language
(RNA, the nucleic acid “language”) to another language
(protein, the amino acid “language”).
1/12 Bell Work
• Create an equation whose answer is 12 that also
includes a fraction.
EX: (24/3) + 4 = 12
1/12 Schedule
• Finish notes Ch 13.3 “Gene Expression”
• Transcription and Translation Wkshts to practice
If you drop this class, turn in your book!
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 - FRIDAY
Gene Transcription and
Translation
RNA: A Major Player
RNA Structure
• Made of linked nucleotide subunits.
• 3 Major Differences to DNA
• RNA is usually of one strand.
• Different sugar in the nucleotide.
• Uses Uracil (U) instead of Thymine (T)
Uracil vs Thymine
RNA: A Major Player,
3 Major Types of RNA
• Messenger RNA (mRNA) – produced during transcription
and carries information out to the cytoplasm for translation.
• Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – part of ribosomes, the
“machines” that make proteins.
• Transfer RNA (tRNA) – “reads” mRNA during translation
to make proteins.
Transcription:
Reading the Gene
Transcription Details
• Information from a gene is copied into mRNA by RNA
polymerase.
• The polymerase binds to the specific DNA sequence in the
gene called the promoter.
• RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA to expose the bases.
Transcription:
Reading the Gene
Transcription Details
• RNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand and adds
complementary RNA bases.
• mRNA forms as the two DNA strands link back up behind.
Transcription makes RNA.
Replication makes DNA.
The Genetic Code:
Three-Letter “Words”
Transcription
• Each three-nucleotide sequence of mRNA is a codon that
corresponds to 1 of 20 amino acids building blocks.
• There are 64 possible mRNA codons, so several codons can
have the same amino acid.
Codons in mRNA
Translation: RNA to
Proteins
Translation Process
• Uses the 3 kinds of RNA to make a polypeptide (protein)
• An amino acid is attached to each tRNA. The other end
has an anticodon that matches up with an mRNA codon.
Translation: RNA to
Proteins
Translation Process
• The mRNA joins with a ribosome and a tRNA.
• Another tRNA with the correct anticodon binds to the
mRNA.
• A peptide bond forms between the two amino acids,
and the first tRNA is released.
• The ribosome then moves one codon down.
Translation: RNA to
Proteins
Translation
• The amino acid chain grows as each new amino acid
binds to the chain.
• This process until a stop codon is reached. They don’t
have anticodons, so protein production stops.
Translation: RNA to
Proteins
1/13 Bell Work
• When can you add 2 to 11 and get 1 as the correct
answer?
1/13 Schedule
• Notes Ch 14.1 “Genes in Action”
• Work
• Dir Rdg Ch 13 – TODAY
• Transcription and Translation Summary – TUESDAY
• Missing notes
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 - FRIDAY
Complexities of Gene
Expression
Gene Expression
• Some genes are expressed only when needed.
• Variations and mistakes can occur at each of the steps in
replication and expression.
• The final outcome is affected by the environment, the
presence of other cells, and the timing of gene expression.
• EX: Your body only makes insulin when
it’s needed
Ch 14.1 “Genes in
Action”
Objectives
• Review how genetic variation occurs.
• Describe different kinds of mutations and their effects.
Mutation: The Basis
of Genetic Change
Mutation: a change in structure or amount of DNA.
• Mutant: an individual whose DNA differs from the
“normal” state.
• Every new allele began as a mutation of an existing
gene.
Blue eyes were a mutation
of the brown allele.
Mutation: The Basis
of Genetic Change
Causes of Mutations
1. Uncorrected accidental, natural changes to DNA or
to chromosomes during the cell cycle.
2. Mutagens: environmental factor like radiation and
some kinds of chemicals.
Skin cancer can be caused by
too much UV radiation.
1/17 Bell Work
• Create an equation with exponents whose answer is
17.
1/17 Schedule
• Notes Ch 14.1 “Genes in Action” online
• Dir Rdg Ch 14 “Mutations” - TBA
• Work
• Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE
• Transcription and Translation Summary – TODAY
• Missing notes
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE
2. Transcript and Transl Summary – TODAY
3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 - TBA
Mutation: The Basis
of Genetic Change
Effects of Mutations
• May have no effect, harm, or help in some way.
• The effect depends on where and when the mutation
occurs.
• A small change in DNA may affect just one amino acid.
• May go unnoticed since some amino acids have duplicate
codes.
Mutation: The Basis
of Genetic Change
Effects of Mutations
• Mutations are noticed when they cause an unusual
trait or disease, such as sickle cell anemia.
SCA is caused by abnormal hemoglobin.
They do not carry oxygen efficiently, and
may get stuck in blood vessels.
Several Kinds of
Mutations
Mutations Types
• During DNA replication, the wrong nucleotide may be
used.
• Point Mutation: change of a single nucleotide from one
kind of base to another.
• A – C instead of T
• one or more nucleotides inserted or deleted.
Several Kinds of
Mutations
Mutation Types
• Silent Mutation: no effect on a gene’s function.
• Point mutations are often silent because each amino acid
has multiple codons.
Several Kinds of
Mutations
Mutations Types
• Missense Mutation: a codon is changed and codes for
a different amino acid.
• EX: The cat ate. vs. The bat ate.
• Frameshift Mutation: an insertion or deletion means
remaining sequence may be “read” as different codons.
• EX: The cat ate. vs. The cata te.
•
Several Kinds of
Mutations
Mutations Types
• Nonsense mutation: codon is changed to a “stop” signal.
The resulting string of amino acids may be cut short fail to
function.
• EX: The cat ate. vs. The cat.
• If an insertion or deletion is a multiple of 3, the reading frame
will be preserved. However, the number of amino acids
changes.
• An insertion or deletion of many codons is likely to disrupt the
resulting protein’s structure and function.
Kinds of Mutations
Click to animate the image.
Chromosomal
Mutations
Chromosomal Mutations
• Meiosis creates the chance of mutations.
• Chromosomes pair up and may crossover. Errors in
the exchange can cause chromosomal mutations.
Ancestral Hyla chrysocelis (grey, 24
chromosomes) vs Hyla versicolor
(green, 48 chromosomes)
Chromosomal
Mutations
Chromosomal Mutations
• Deletion Mutation: a piece of a chromosome is lost.
One of the cells is short DNA, and usually harmed.
• Duplication Mutation: chromosome has an extra
piece (allele) of DNA.
Chromosomal
Mutations
Chromosomal Mutations
• Inversion: a piece reattaches to its original
chromosome, but in a reverse direction.
• Translocation: a chromosome piece ends up in a
completely different, nonhomologous chromosome.
This gene rearrangement often disrupts the gene’s
function.
Inversion mutation
Gene Mutations
Effects of Genetic
Change
Mutation Effects
• Most changes are neutral and may not be passed on to
offspring.
• Only mutations in gametes are passed on to offspring,
mutations in body cells are not.
Effects of Genetic
Change, continued
Tumors and Cancers
• Certain genes control the normal growth, division, and
specialization of cells in bodies.
• Mutations in these genes can cause a normal somatic
cell to “lose control” and begin growing and dividing
abnormally. The group of cells becomes a tumor.
1/18 Bell Work
Professor Bumble was going on a lecture circuit for
several months. He asked Hardy Pyle to watch for
a certain letter he was expecting. The problem was
Bumble had a mail slot and forgot to leave his
house key. Hardy sent Bumble a letter to inform
him of the dilemma. Bumble immediately sent the
key back home by return mail.
• Hardy still couldn’t collect the mail. Why?
1/18 Schedule
• Notes Ch 14.1 “Genes in Action”
• DNA Mutations Practice – FRIDAY
• Work
• Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE
• Transcription and Translation Summary – LATE
• Missing notes
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE
2. Transcript and Transl Summary – LATE
3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA
4. DNA Mutations Practice - FRIDAY
Effects of Mutation
on Gene Expression
Effects of Genetic
Change
Genetic Disorders: inherited mutations cause harmful
effects.
• Many disorders are recessive, occur only in a person
who is homozygous for the mutated allele.
• A person who is heterozygous for such an allele is said
to be a carrier because their children may have the
disorder.
Some Important
Genetic Disorders
Large-Scale Genetic
Change
• Accidents can happen to entire sets of chromosomes.
• Very large-scale genetic change can occur by
misplacement, recombination, or multiplication of
entire chromosomes.
Large-Scale Genetic
Change
Errors in Chromosomes
• Mutations can happen in some genes without losing
the functions of the original genes.
• Polyploidy is common in plants.
Triploid seedless watermelon
Triploid banana
Strawberries often tetra to
decaploids.
Large-Scale Genetic
Change
Errors in Chromosomes
• Each human chromosomes has thousands of genes.
Together, these genes control cell structure and function.
• All 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) are needed for the human
body to develop and function normally.
• Human embryos with missing chromosomes rarely survive.
Humans with an extra chromosome may survive but do not
develop normally.
Large-Scale Genetic
Change
Errors in Chromosomes
• When gametes form, each chromosome pair of
chromosomes separates in disjunction. When the pairs
fail to separate, it is called nondisjunction.
1/19 Bell Work
• Solve the bottom three word puzzles. They refer to
common phrases.
2 under par
Falling temps
Fat chance
1/19 Schedule
• Pop Quiz in desk groups
• “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 1-2 in desk groups
• File online under Case Studies
• Group writes answers on lined paper
• Pt 1
• 1. Answer blah blah….
• 2. More answers blah…
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE
2. Transcript and Transl Summary – LATE
3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA
4. DNA Mutations Practice - FRIDAY
Those Old Kentucky
Blues
• There’s an old song called “Blue Kentucky Girl.”
• Did you know there actually are blue people from
Kentucky?
Those Old Kentucky
Blues
• Hypotheses?
• How would you test?
1/20 Bell Work
A scale is perfectly balanced when there are 3 cans of
soda on one side and one can of soda and a half-pound
gold bar on the other side.
• Draw a picture of the set-up. Figure out how much
each soda weighs.
1/20 Schedule
• Quiz?
• “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 1-3 in desk groups
• File online under Case Studies
• Group writes answers on lined paper
• Pt 1
• 1. Answer blah blah….
• 2. More answers blah…
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE
2. Transcript and Transl Summary – LATE
3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA
4. DNA Mutations Practice - FRIDAY
Those Old Kentucky
Blues
• Make a family tree and figure out alleles for people.
• Is “blueness” heritable? (Is it a mutation?)
• What pattern of inheritance does the family tree show?
• Dominant
• Recessive
• Sex-linked
Those Old Kentucky
BLues
• Make sure you have the alleles for the people you
know.
• What are the three lines on the graph showing us?
• What are possible genotypes for each line in the graph?
• Compare your conclusions to your family tree in Pt II.
Is one more correct than the other? Explain.
1/23 Bell Work
Dan Manly was revisiting his home town when he met
an old friend. “I’m married now, but you wouldn’t know
it. By the way, this is my daughter,” said the friend. Dan
looked down and asked the little girl her name. “It’s the
same as my mother’s,” the little girl replied. “Then I bet
your name is Susan,” said Dan. “Somebody must have
told you!” the little girl exclaimed.
• How could he know?
1/23 Schedule
• Notes Ch 14.2 “Reg Gene Expression”
• “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due
TUESDAY
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA
2. DNA Mutations Practice – LATE
3. Old Kentucky Blues - TUESDAY
Ch 14.2 “Regulating Gene
Expression”
Objectives
• Describe how gene expression is controlled.
• Compare and contrast gene regulation in bacteria and
eukaryotes.
• Explain why proteins are important.
Complexities of Gene
Expression
Hemoglobin in blood, insulin, and enzymes that
regulate body functions, are all made of proteins.
Name some parts of the human body that contain
proteins and can mutate.
Complexities of Gene
Regulation
Gene expression (transcription and translation) can be
regulated.
• Complex systems to switch genes on or off.
• Expression depends on the cell’s needs and environment
• Different… tissues, conditions, times.
Complexities of Gene
Regulation
Results
• Growth and development
• Unique features despite similar genes
• Cells can use energy and materials efficiently.
Human embryos change over time.
Complexities of Gene
Regulation
Genetic Switches: molecular system that controls the
expression of a specific gene
• Often triggered by factors or conditions outside the
cell.
• The product of one gene may serve to regulate another
gene.
Gene Regulation in
Prokaryotes
Bacteria use operons that respond to environmental
factors.
• Operon: DNA segments control a group of genes with
closely related functions.
• Common in bacteria, but not in eukaryotes.
Gene Regulation in
Prokaryotes
Interactions with the Environment
• Bacteria must get food directly from the environment.
• In a stable environment, a bacterium needs a steady
supply of proteins and tends to keep expressing the
same genes in the same way.
• If the environment changes, a cascade of changes in
gene expression may result.
Gene Regulation in
Prokaryotes
EX: lac Operon
• Found in the bacterium Escherichia coli aka E. coli
• Usually, when you eat or drink a dairy product, the
lactose is digested by E. coli cells living in your gut for
energy.
Lac Operon Model
The E. coli attach to, absorb, and then break down the lactose.
This require three different enzymes, each of which is coded for by a
different gene.
Gene Regulation in
Prokaryotes
EX: lac Operon
• The system involving the lac genes is the lac operon.
• This system includes the three genes plus a promoter site and
an operator site.
• When lactose is available, the system “turns on”
(transcription). When lactose is absent, the system “turns
off” (no transcription).
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Regulation in eukaryotes is more complex and variable.
• More steps and interactions
• Can occur before transcription, after transcription, or
after translation.
• The nuclear membrane separates these processes. So,
each process can be regulated separately.
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
• Genes with related functions may be scattered on
different chromosomes and controlled by multiple
factors.
• Much of the DNA in eukaryotes is never transcribed
or translated into proteins.
Examples of
polygenic traits
1/24 Bell Work
• Solve the top three word puzzles.
Looking out for #1
B line
Home is where the heart is
1/24 Schedule
• Notes Ch 14.2 “Reg Gene Expression”
• HIV Video
• Work
• “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due
TODAY
• Dir Rdg Ch 14
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA
2. DNA Mutations Practice – LATE
3. Old Kentucky Blues - TODAY
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Controlling Transcription
• The genetic switch involves the first step of
transcription, when RNA polymerase binds to the
promoter region.
• The proteins involved in this genetic switch are called
transcription factors.
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Controlling Transcription
• Types of transcription factors
• activators
• repressors
VS
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Controlling Transcription
• One kind of DNA sequence that can be bound by an
activator is an enhancer, often located 1000s of bases
from a promoter.
• A loop in the DNA forms as the factors interact at the
promoter site.
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Processing RNA After Transcription
• Many genes contain noncoding sequences that will not
be translated into amino acids.
• Introns: noncoding segments
• Exons: portions of the gene that do code for amino
acids
• Will a mutation in an intron be silent? Why?
Mutation and ID
Humans share 99.9% of their genes,
still leaving in the remaining 3
million base pairs that can vary.
• Much of this is “junk” that doesn’t
make proteins.
• Repeating base patterns can be
used to ID organisms
• EX: Paternity, CODIS criminal
database, etc.
Codis Activity
General CODIS Procedure
• Compare DNA at crime scene to
suspects at 13 sites
• Suspect confirmed if they have the
exact patterns although chromosome
columns might be switched.
No match in the 2nd column,
suspect eliminated.
HIV Discussion
Write the questions in your notebook. Answer #2-4 as
you watch the video.
1. In your own words, what is HIV and how do you get
it? How dangerous is it? Is there a cure?
2. How does HIV infect immune cells?
3. Why did scientists suspect there was a genetic reason
some people resist AIDS?
4. Why are people like Steve Crohn immune to HIV?
1/25 Bell Work
• If there are 6.02 x 1023 atoms in a mole, how many
moles are there in 18 x 1023 atoms of iron?
1/25 Schedule
• Notes Ch 14.2 “Reg Gene Expression”
• Whodunit CODIS Activity
• Work
• “Old Kentucky Blues” –LATE
• Dir Rdg Ch 14
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA
2. DNA Mutations Practice – LATE
3. Old Kentucky Blues - LATE
Gene Regulation in
EukarYOTES
Processing RNA After Transcription
• Exons and introns are handled during RNA
splicing.
• After the gene is transcribed, the introns are
removed using certain proteins.
Splicing a wire
• The exons are spliced, to form a smaller mRNA
molecule.
• The spliced mRNA leaves the nucleus and is
translated.
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Processing RNA After Transcription
• The splicing creates additional opportunities for variation.
• Each exon encodes a different section, cells can shuffle
them to make new proteins.
• The thousands of human proteins resulted from shuffling a
few thousand exons.
Protein’s
Roles
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Processing Proteins After Translation
• After translation the protein may not go directly into
action.
• Further chemical changes may alter the structure and
function of the protein.
• Change… shape
• stability
• interactions with other molecules
Gene Regulation in
Eukaryotes
Processing Proteins After Translation
• Protein sorting is often directed by sorting signals in the
Golgi, small parts of a protein that bind to other
molecules within the cell.
Might bind to…
• final location in cell
• ribosomes and sent to ER for more processing
Processing RNA After Transcription
Click to animate the image.
The Many Roles of
Proteins
Protein Roles
• Forming the cell’s shape/structure
• Regulating gene expression
• Send messages
• Proteins range in size from about 50 amino acids to
more than 25,000. The average is about 250.
Genes and SNPs
• How did scientists learn about DNA and mutations?
• Study DNA (aka genomics) of different individuals in a
species.
• Compare/Contrast DNA of different species.
• Similar DNA patterns emerge within and across
species
• Genes
• “Junk” DNA
• Markers/signposts like Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms
(SNPs) to ID traits.
Codis Activity
Situation
• There was a break in at the school last night and all of
the Prom and Senior Trip money is now missing. Cell
phone records confirm three teachers were in the area
at the time. Ms. Bash, Ms. Olson, and Mrs. Bryce all
deny having anything to do with it. Luckily for the
police, the criminal left some hair with skin tags.
behind.
Your goal: Use the CODIS worksheet to confirm or
eliminate each of the suspects. Remember both columns
must match the sample sites to verify police suspicions.
Model Introns and
Exons
1. Get a 15-20 cm strip of masking tape.
2. Pick 2 colors and write the following phrase.
appropriately joined
3. Cut each group of colored letters apart from left to
right and stick them to your desk in order by color.
4. Which of your colors is introns? exons?
5. Will a mutation in the introns be in the final protein?
Why?
1/26 Bell Work
Charles Pompuss travels around the world buying
expensive art pieces and gems. He always insists on
wearing dark glasses when he negotiates to hide his eyes.
• What is the reasoning for his peculiar behavior?
1/26 Schedule
• Notes Ch 14.3 “Genome Interactions”
• Dog SNP Pt 1
• Work
• “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due LATE
• Dir Rdg Ch 14 - MONDAY
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – MONDAY
2. Old Kentucky Blues – LATE
3. CODIS Activity - TODAY
Ch 14.3 “Genome
Interactions”
Objectives
• Use genomes to compare organisms.
• Describe ways DNA is stored other than
chromosomes.
• Explain how genes help multicellular organisms
develop.
Genome Interactions
Intro
Why do you think protein synthesis research has been
focused on prokaryotes rather than eukaryotes?
VS
Genomes and the
Diversity of Life
Genomics revolutionized our knowledge of gene
regulation and expression.
• Genome: all of the DNA and genes that an organism
has within its chromosomes.
• Comparisons reveal basic biological similarities and
relationships.
Humans and chimpanzees share 98.5% DNA, and probably
diverged from a common ancestor 7-12 mil years ago.
Genomes and the
Diversity of Life
An (Almost) Universal Code
• With few exceptions, the genetic code is the same in all
organisms.
• Some bacteria use a slightly different set of amino
acids to make proteins.
Genomes and the
Diversity of Life
Genome Size
• Can be measured as an amount of DNA or a number of
genes.
Oraganism
Bases
Genes
Microbes
400,000 - millions
400-9,300
Eukaryotes
100 mil – over 3 billion
6,000 – 100,000
Humans
approx 3 billion
30,000
Genomes and the
Diversity of Life
DNA vs Genes
• Not all DNA in a cell is part of a gene
(introns/noncoding) or a chromosome.
• Most bacteria have small circular pieces
of DNA called plasmids. They replicate
independently and can be transferred.
Bacteria sharing plasmids
aka bacteria sex
Genomes and the
Diversity of Life
DNA Versus Genes
Mitochondria and chloroplasts each have their own
DNA.
• These genomes code for proteins and RNAs (rRNA and
tRNA) that assist in the function of each organelle.
• Basis for endosymbiosis theory.
Mitochondria
Chloroplasts
Endosymbiosis
Moving Beyond
Chromosomes
Mobile Genetic Elements (MGE)
• Ex: plasmids, transposons, and viruses.
• Units of DNA or RNA that move from one place to
another.
Moving Beyond
Chromosomes
Mobile Genetic Elements
• Transposons: sets of genes that are move randomly are
• aka “jumping genes”
• Often inactivate nearby genes
• Found in all organisms
Jumping genes in corn often interfere
with pigment genes.
Moving Beyond
Chromosomes
Mobile Genetic Elements
• Viruses infect cells by using the cells’ own replication
processes to make new copies.
• Some RNA viruses are retroviruses and produce DNA
that becomes part of the host cell’s genome.
• EX: HIV and Hepatitis B
Moving Beyond
Chromosomes
Genetic Change
• MGEs cause genetic change by bringing together new
combinations of genes.
• MGEs can transfer genetic material between
individuals and even between species.
Multicellular
Development & Aging
Cell Differentiation
• Cell differentiation: new cells are modified and
specialized as they multiply to form a body.
• Gene regulation plays an important role in this
process.
Multicellular
Development & Aging
Cell Differentiation
EX: A specific gene, called hox, is found in all animals
with a head and tail.
Mutations might cause one body part to develop in place
of another or add/subtract parts.
Multicellular
Development & Aging
Cell Death and Aging
• In multicellular organisms, most of cells stop dividing once
the organism is mature.
• Almost all body cells are “programmed” to age and die.
• At some point, the cell will simply shut down all
functioning, gradually shrink, and eventually fall apart.
Multicellular
Development & Aging
Cell Death and Aging
• This cellular “suicide” is known as apoptosis.
• Apoptosis seems to occur in consistent steps, like
mitosis, but the mechanism isn’t completely
understood.
Multicellular
Development & Aging
Cell Death and Aging
• Genetic Disorder: Progeria
• Symptoms: Wrinkles, baldness, thin skin, small jaw with
large head
• Probable mechanism: Defective nuclear membrane,
hinders mitosis
• Results: Most die before reaching 13
Leon Botha, South
African Hip Hop
artist, died at 26
17 year old girl with
progeria.
Multicellular
Development & Aging
Cell Death and Aging
• Aging has many effects on cells.
• An example is the effect of aging on the ends of
chromosomes (called telomeres).
Multicellular
Development & Aging
Cell Death and Aging
• As cells divide repeatedly, the telomeres lose
nucleotides and become shortened.
• In older cells, this shortening may cause mishandling
of the chromosomes during mitosis and thus result in
nonfunctioning cells.
1/27 Bell Work
How many times can you subtract 5 from 25? Why?
CAREFUL reading the question!
1/27 Schedule
• Dog SNP Pt 1
• Work
• “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due LATE
• Dir Rdg Ch 14 - MONDAY
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – MONDAY
2. Old Kentucky Blues – LATE
3. CODIS Activity - LATE
Mapping Genes to
Traits in Dogs
• Watch video introducing Dr. Karlsson’s work on the
dog genome and why dogs are a good research subject.
• Partners or Groups of 3
• Under “Case Studies” online
• Fill in the blank or short answer in complete sentences
• Read and answer questions Part 1 and start Pt 2
1/30 Bell Work
• Solve the word puzzles.
1/30 Schedule
• Dog SNP Pt 1-3
• Work
• “Dir Rdg Ch 14 - TODAY
Ch 13-14 Test “Molecular Basis of
Genetics” WEDNESDAY
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TODAY
2. Old Kentucky Blues – LATE
3. CODIS Activity - LATE
Mapping Genes to
Traits in Dogs
Pt 1 “Procedure” and 2 “Intro to GWAS”
• Read carefully, answers are in text.
• Answer in sentences unless filling in a blank.
• Pt 3 “Identify Correlations” (connections)
• Sort cards into long, short, curly, and straight.
• Count numbers of each nucleotide in the columns
• Big differences are probably related to the phenotype
• Pt 5
• Read carefully and interpret chart
1/31 Bell Work
• Create an equation with subtraction and division that
equals 31.
1/31 Schedule
• Mapping Genes Dogs Pt 5
• Review Bingo
• Work
• “Dir Rdg Ch 14 - LATE
Ch 13-14 Test “Molecular Basis of
Genetics” WEDNESDAY
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – LATE
2. Mapping Genes TODAY
Mapping Genes to
Traits in Dogs
Pt 1 “Procedure” and 2 “Intro to GWAS”
• Read carefully, answers are in text.
• Answer in sentences unless filling in a blank.
• Pt 3 “Identify Correlations” (connections)
• Sort cards into long, short, curly, and straight.
• Count numbers of each nucleotide in the columns
• Big differences are probably related to the phenotype
• Pt 5
• Read carefully and interpret chart
Review Bingo
• Move around the room to find someone to answer the
questions if needed. Have them sign it.
• 5 across, vertically, or diagonally correctly to get a
BINGO.
• EC:
• 1st = 3 pts
• 2nd = 2 pts
• 3rd = 1 pt
FINISH!
2/1 Bell Work
• Solve the word puzzles.
2/1 Schedule
• 7 min to study, ask questions, etc.
• Ch 13-14 “Molecular Basis” Test
• Jaime Oliver – Teach Every Child About Food
ALL assignments in by 3:30
TODAY if you take the test.
Assignments:
1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – LATE
2. Mapping Genes LATE
2/2 Bell Work
There is a saying, “Hindsight is 20/20.”
• What do you think that means?
Parents gone, had a party.
Now they’re back…
2/2 Schedule
• Finish Ch 13-14 “Molecular Basis” Test – 15 min
• Read an epigenetics article – due tomorrow
• Define, process, results
• Jaime Oliver – Teach Every Child About Food
Assignments:
What is Epigenetics?
• Go to
https://www.sciencenews.org/highschools/login
• Read an article (or 3) about epigenetics.
• In your notebook define epigenetics, describe process,
and results for tomorrow.
• USER ID:
• Passcode:
• Tracking ID:
SNHS_030120_AZ
0874927cfd
snhs_030120_az-169749
2/3 Bell Work
• You’re shaking a set of three dice. What are the
chances you will roll 6-6-6?
2/3 Schedule
• Finish Ch 13-14 “Molecular Basis” Test?
• Check for epigenetics assignment
• Define, process, results
• Jaime Oliver – Teach Every Child About Food
Assignments:
Epigenetics definition, process, results in notebook - TODAY
Jamie Oliver: “Teach Every Child
about Food”
• Are you more likely to be murdered, die from
obesity-related problems, or get lung cancer from
smoking?
• Name two of his problems with “Main Street” food.
• What are at least two difficulties school lunch
programs face?
• According to him, why should students learn to
cook?