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Concept Maps • Concept Map aka Word Web aka Graphic Organizer • Starts with a central idea or topic in a bubble • Related ideas are connected with lines, and words showing their connection. 1776 Declared independence United States New Mexic o Consists of 50 states Including Arizona st 1 Malena Hr Welcome Back! Brigham Tagipo Normisha Angela Jaime Abreanna th 6 Hr Welcome Back! Aiyana Leigh Rebecca Gerald Raeana Chasity Jenna th 7 Hr Welcome Back! • Please check to see if your name moved. Shanae Melanie Kendall Kiara Hanna 1/11 Bell Work Approximately how far would a tire with a 2 foot diameter roll in 700 revolutions? Hint: Use circle equations in planner. 1/11 Schedule • Pop Quiz Ch 13.1-13.2 in desk groups • Start notes Ch 13.3 “Gene Expression” • DNA Extraction Lab – look at DNA • Make sure to use a coverslip. • Observe low, med, high if possible • Rinse and return slides and coverslips If you drop this class, turn in your book! Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 - FRIDAY Unit : Molecular basis of Genetics (DNA, RNA, & Proteins) Ch 13-14 Objectives 1. Describe how genes are encoded in DNA. 2. Explain the molecular basis of heredity. Ch 13.3 “RNA and GENE Expression Objectives • Describe process of gene expression and the role of RNA. • Differentiate between transcription and translation. Protein Review Chemical structures involved in processes like hemoglobin in blood, insulin that regulates blood glucose levels, and enzymes that regulate body functions, are all made of proteins. Name some parts of the human body that contain proteins. Remember proteins are often structural materials… Overview of Gene Expression DNA to Protein • DNA does NOT directly make proteins. • RNA (ribonucleic acid) takes the information from DNA and makes proteins. • Gene expression – proteins produced, DNA is “switched” on. Overview of Gene Expression, Two Steps 1. Transcription : the process of making RNA from the information in DNA. • Ex: Like copying (transcribing) notes from the board (DNA) to a notebook (RNA). Overview of Gene Expression 2 Steps 2. Translation uses the information in RNA to make a specific protein. • Translation is like translating a sentence in one language (RNA, the nucleic acid “language”) to another language (protein, the amino acid “language”). 1/12 Bell Work • Create an equation whose answer is 12 that also includes a fraction. EX: (24/3) + 4 = 12 1/12 Schedule • Finish notes Ch 13.3 “Gene Expression” • Transcription and Translation Wkshts to practice If you drop this class, turn in your book! Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 - FRIDAY Gene Transcription and Translation RNA: A Major Player RNA Structure • Made of linked nucleotide subunits. • 3 Major Differences to DNA • RNA is usually of one strand. • Different sugar in the nucleotide. • Uses Uracil (U) instead of Thymine (T) Uracil vs Thymine RNA: A Major Player, 3 Major Types of RNA • Messenger RNA (mRNA) – produced during transcription and carries information out to the cytoplasm for translation. • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – part of ribosomes, the “machines” that make proteins. • Transfer RNA (tRNA) – “reads” mRNA during translation to make proteins. Transcription: Reading the Gene Transcription Details • Information from a gene is copied into mRNA by RNA polymerase. • The polymerase binds to the specific DNA sequence in the gene called the promoter. • RNA polymerase unwinds the DNA to expose the bases. Transcription: Reading the Gene Transcription Details • RNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand and adds complementary RNA bases. • mRNA forms as the two DNA strands link back up behind. Transcription makes RNA. Replication makes DNA. The Genetic Code: Three-Letter “Words” Transcription • Each three-nucleotide sequence of mRNA is a codon that corresponds to 1 of 20 amino acids building blocks. • There are 64 possible mRNA codons, so several codons can have the same amino acid. Codons in mRNA Translation: RNA to Proteins Translation Process • Uses the 3 kinds of RNA to make a polypeptide (protein) • An amino acid is attached to each tRNA. The other end has an anticodon that matches up with an mRNA codon. Translation: RNA to Proteins Translation Process • The mRNA joins with a ribosome and a tRNA. • Another tRNA with the correct anticodon binds to the mRNA. • A peptide bond forms between the two amino acids, and the first tRNA is released. • The ribosome then moves one codon down. Translation: RNA to Proteins Translation • The amino acid chain grows as each new amino acid binds to the chain. • This process until a stop codon is reached. They don’t have anticodons, so protein production stops. Translation: RNA to Proteins 1/13 Bell Work • When can you add 2 to 11 and get 1 as the correct answer? 1/13 Schedule • Notes Ch 14.1 “Genes in Action” • Work • Dir Rdg Ch 13 – TODAY • Transcription and Translation Summary – TUESDAY • Missing notes Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 - FRIDAY Complexities of Gene Expression Gene Expression • Some genes are expressed only when needed. • Variations and mistakes can occur at each of the steps in replication and expression. • The final outcome is affected by the environment, the presence of other cells, and the timing of gene expression. • EX: Your body only makes insulin when it’s needed Ch 14.1 “Genes in Action” Objectives • Review how genetic variation occurs. • Describe different kinds of mutations and their effects. Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change Mutation: a change in structure or amount of DNA. • Mutant: an individual whose DNA differs from the “normal” state. • Every new allele began as a mutation of an existing gene. Blue eyes were a mutation of the brown allele. Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change Causes of Mutations 1. Uncorrected accidental, natural changes to DNA or to chromosomes during the cell cycle. 2. Mutagens: environmental factor like radiation and some kinds of chemicals. Skin cancer can be caused by too much UV radiation. 1/17 Bell Work • Create an equation with exponents whose answer is 17. 1/17 Schedule • Notes Ch 14.1 “Genes in Action” online • Dir Rdg Ch 14 “Mutations” - TBA • Work • Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE • Transcription and Translation Summary – TODAY • Missing notes Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE 2. Transcript and Transl Summary – TODAY 3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 - TBA Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change Effects of Mutations • May have no effect, harm, or help in some way. • The effect depends on where and when the mutation occurs. • A small change in DNA may affect just one amino acid. • May go unnoticed since some amino acids have duplicate codes. Mutation: The Basis of Genetic Change Effects of Mutations • Mutations are noticed when they cause an unusual trait or disease, such as sickle cell anemia. SCA is caused by abnormal hemoglobin. They do not carry oxygen efficiently, and may get stuck in blood vessels. Several Kinds of Mutations Mutations Types • During DNA replication, the wrong nucleotide may be used. • Point Mutation: change of a single nucleotide from one kind of base to another. • A – C instead of T • one or more nucleotides inserted or deleted. Several Kinds of Mutations Mutation Types • Silent Mutation: no effect on a gene’s function. • Point mutations are often silent because each amino acid has multiple codons. Several Kinds of Mutations Mutations Types • Missense Mutation: a codon is changed and codes for a different amino acid. • EX: The cat ate. vs. The bat ate. • Frameshift Mutation: an insertion or deletion means remaining sequence may be “read” as different codons. • EX: The cat ate. vs. The cata te. • Several Kinds of Mutations Mutations Types • Nonsense mutation: codon is changed to a “stop” signal. The resulting string of amino acids may be cut short fail to function. • EX: The cat ate. vs. The cat. • If an insertion or deletion is a multiple of 3, the reading frame will be preserved. However, the number of amino acids changes. • An insertion or deletion of many codons is likely to disrupt the resulting protein’s structure and function. Kinds of Mutations Click to animate the image. Chromosomal Mutations Chromosomal Mutations • Meiosis creates the chance of mutations. • Chromosomes pair up and may crossover. Errors in the exchange can cause chromosomal mutations. Ancestral Hyla chrysocelis (grey, 24 chromosomes) vs Hyla versicolor (green, 48 chromosomes) Chromosomal Mutations Chromosomal Mutations • Deletion Mutation: a piece of a chromosome is lost. One of the cells is short DNA, and usually harmed. • Duplication Mutation: chromosome has an extra piece (allele) of DNA. Chromosomal Mutations Chromosomal Mutations • Inversion: a piece reattaches to its original chromosome, but in a reverse direction. • Translocation: a chromosome piece ends up in a completely different, nonhomologous chromosome. This gene rearrangement often disrupts the gene’s function. Inversion mutation Gene Mutations Effects of Genetic Change Mutation Effects • Most changes are neutral and may not be passed on to offspring. • Only mutations in gametes are passed on to offspring, mutations in body cells are not. Effects of Genetic Change, continued Tumors and Cancers • Certain genes control the normal growth, division, and specialization of cells in bodies. • Mutations in these genes can cause a normal somatic cell to “lose control” and begin growing and dividing abnormally. The group of cells becomes a tumor. 1/18 Bell Work Professor Bumble was going on a lecture circuit for several months. He asked Hardy Pyle to watch for a certain letter he was expecting. The problem was Bumble had a mail slot and forgot to leave his house key. Hardy sent Bumble a letter to inform him of the dilemma. Bumble immediately sent the key back home by return mail. • Hardy still couldn’t collect the mail. Why? 1/18 Schedule • Notes Ch 14.1 “Genes in Action” • DNA Mutations Practice – FRIDAY • Work • Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE • Transcription and Translation Summary – LATE • Missing notes Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE 2. Transcript and Transl Summary – LATE 3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA 4. DNA Mutations Practice - FRIDAY Effects of Mutation on Gene Expression Effects of Genetic Change Genetic Disorders: inherited mutations cause harmful effects. • Many disorders are recessive, occur only in a person who is homozygous for the mutated allele. • A person who is heterozygous for such an allele is said to be a carrier because their children may have the disorder. Some Important Genetic Disorders Large-Scale Genetic Change • Accidents can happen to entire sets of chromosomes. • Very large-scale genetic change can occur by misplacement, recombination, or multiplication of entire chromosomes. Large-Scale Genetic Change Errors in Chromosomes • Mutations can happen in some genes without losing the functions of the original genes. • Polyploidy is common in plants. Triploid seedless watermelon Triploid banana Strawberries often tetra to decaploids. Large-Scale Genetic Change Errors in Chromosomes • Each human chromosomes has thousands of genes. Together, these genes control cell structure and function. • All 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) are needed for the human body to develop and function normally. • Human embryos with missing chromosomes rarely survive. Humans with an extra chromosome may survive but do not develop normally. Large-Scale Genetic Change Errors in Chromosomes • When gametes form, each chromosome pair of chromosomes separates in disjunction. When the pairs fail to separate, it is called nondisjunction. 1/19 Bell Work • Solve the bottom three word puzzles. They refer to common phrases. 2 under par Falling temps Fat chance 1/19 Schedule • Pop Quiz in desk groups • “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 1-2 in desk groups • File online under Case Studies • Group writes answers on lined paper • Pt 1 • 1. Answer blah blah…. • 2. More answers blah… Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE 2. Transcript and Transl Summary – LATE 3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA 4. DNA Mutations Practice - FRIDAY Those Old Kentucky Blues • There’s an old song called “Blue Kentucky Girl.” • Did you know there actually are blue people from Kentucky? Those Old Kentucky Blues • Hypotheses? • How would you test? 1/20 Bell Work A scale is perfectly balanced when there are 3 cans of soda on one side and one can of soda and a half-pound gold bar on the other side. • Draw a picture of the set-up. Figure out how much each soda weighs. 1/20 Schedule • Quiz? • “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 1-3 in desk groups • File online under Case Studies • Group writes answers on lined paper • Pt 1 • 1. Answer blah blah…. • 2. More answers blah… Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 13 – LATE 2. Transcript and Transl Summary – LATE 3. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA 4. DNA Mutations Practice - FRIDAY Those Old Kentucky Blues • Make a family tree and figure out alleles for people. • Is “blueness” heritable? (Is it a mutation?) • What pattern of inheritance does the family tree show? • Dominant • Recessive • Sex-linked Those Old Kentucky BLues • Make sure you have the alleles for the people you know. • What are the three lines on the graph showing us? • What are possible genotypes for each line in the graph? • Compare your conclusions to your family tree in Pt II. Is one more correct than the other? Explain. 1/23 Bell Work Dan Manly was revisiting his home town when he met an old friend. “I’m married now, but you wouldn’t know it. By the way, this is my daughter,” said the friend. Dan looked down and asked the little girl her name. “It’s the same as my mother’s,” the little girl replied. “Then I bet your name is Susan,” said Dan. “Somebody must have told you!” the little girl exclaimed. • How could he know? 1/23 Schedule • Notes Ch 14.2 “Reg Gene Expression” • “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due TUESDAY Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA 2. DNA Mutations Practice – LATE 3. Old Kentucky Blues - TUESDAY Ch 14.2 “Regulating Gene Expression” Objectives • Describe how gene expression is controlled. • Compare and contrast gene regulation in bacteria and eukaryotes. • Explain why proteins are important. Complexities of Gene Expression Hemoglobin in blood, insulin, and enzymes that regulate body functions, are all made of proteins. Name some parts of the human body that contain proteins and can mutate. Complexities of Gene Regulation Gene expression (transcription and translation) can be regulated. • Complex systems to switch genes on or off. • Expression depends on the cell’s needs and environment • Different… tissues, conditions, times. Complexities of Gene Regulation Results • Growth and development • Unique features despite similar genes • Cells can use energy and materials efficiently. Human embryos change over time. Complexities of Gene Regulation Genetic Switches: molecular system that controls the expression of a specific gene • Often triggered by factors or conditions outside the cell. • The product of one gene may serve to regulate another gene. Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes Bacteria use operons that respond to environmental factors. • Operon: DNA segments control a group of genes with closely related functions. • Common in bacteria, but not in eukaryotes. Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes Interactions with the Environment • Bacteria must get food directly from the environment. • In a stable environment, a bacterium needs a steady supply of proteins and tends to keep expressing the same genes in the same way. • If the environment changes, a cascade of changes in gene expression may result. Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes EX: lac Operon • Found in the bacterium Escherichia coli aka E. coli • Usually, when you eat or drink a dairy product, the lactose is digested by E. coli cells living in your gut for energy. Lac Operon Model The E. coli attach to, absorb, and then break down the lactose. This require three different enzymes, each of which is coded for by a different gene. Gene Regulation in Prokaryotes EX: lac Operon • The system involving the lac genes is the lac operon. • This system includes the three genes plus a promoter site and an operator site. • When lactose is available, the system “turns on” (transcription). When lactose is absent, the system “turns off” (no transcription). Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Regulation in eukaryotes is more complex and variable. • More steps and interactions • Can occur before transcription, after transcription, or after translation. • The nuclear membrane separates these processes. So, each process can be regulated separately. Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes • Genes with related functions may be scattered on different chromosomes and controlled by multiple factors. • Much of the DNA in eukaryotes is never transcribed or translated into proteins. Examples of polygenic traits 1/24 Bell Work • Solve the top three word puzzles. Looking out for #1 B line Home is where the heart is 1/24 Schedule • Notes Ch 14.2 “Reg Gene Expression” • HIV Video • Work • “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due TODAY • Dir Rdg Ch 14 Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA 2. DNA Mutations Practice – LATE 3. Old Kentucky Blues - TODAY Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Controlling Transcription • The genetic switch involves the first step of transcription, when RNA polymerase binds to the promoter region. • The proteins involved in this genetic switch are called transcription factors. Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Controlling Transcription • Types of transcription factors • activators • repressors VS Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Controlling Transcription • One kind of DNA sequence that can be bound by an activator is an enhancer, often located 1000s of bases from a promoter. • A loop in the DNA forms as the factors interact at the promoter site. Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Processing RNA After Transcription • Many genes contain noncoding sequences that will not be translated into amino acids. • Introns: noncoding segments • Exons: portions of the gene that do code for amino acids • Will a mutation in an intron be silent? Why? Mutation and ID Humans share 99.9% of their genes, still leaving in the remaining 3 million base pairs that can vary. • Much of this is “junk” that doesn’t make proteins. • Repeating base patterns can be used to ID organisms • EX: Paternity, CODIS criminal database, etc. Codis Activity General CODIS Procedure • Compare DNA at crime scene to suspects at 13 sites • Suspect confirmed if they have the exact patterns although chromosome columns might be switched. No match in the 2nd column, suspect eliminated. HIV Discussion Write the questions in your notebook. Answer #2-4 as you watch the video. 1. In your own words, what is HIV and how do you get it? How dangerous is it? Is there a cure? 2. How does HIV infect immune cells? 3. Why did scientists suspect there was a genetic reason some people resist AIDS? 4. Why are people like Steve Crohn immune to HIV? 1/25 Bell Work • If there are 6.02 x 1023 atoms in a mole, how many moles are there in 18 x 1023 atoms of iron? 1/25 Schedule • Notes Ch 14.2 “Reg Gene Expression” • Whodunit CODIS Activity • Work • “Old Kentucky Blues” –LATE • Dir Rdg Ch 14 Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TBA 2. DNA Mutations Practice – LATE 3. Old Kentucky Blues - LATE Gene Regulation in EukarYOTES Processing RNA After Transcription • Exons and introns are handled during RNA splicing. • After the gene is transcribed, the introns are removed using certain proteins. Splicing a wire • The exons are spliced, to form a smaller mRNA molecule. • The spliced mRNA leaves the nucleus and is translated. Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Processing RNA After Transcription • The splicing creates additional opportunities for variation. • Each exon encodes a different section, cells can shuffle them to make new proteins. • The thousands of human proteins resulted from shuffling a few thousand exons. Protein’s Roles Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Processing Proteins After Translation • After translation the protein may not go directly into action. • Further chemical changes may alter the structure and function of the protein. • Change… shape • stability • interactions with other molecules Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes Processing Proteins After Translation • Protein sorting is often directed by sorting signals in the Golgi, small parts of a protein that bind to other molecules within the cell. Might bind to… • final location in cell • ribosomes and sent to ER for more processing Processing RNA After Transcription Click to animate the image. The Many Roles of Proteins Protein Roles • Forming the cell’s shape/structure • Regulating gene expression • Send messages • Proteins range in size from about 50 amino acids to more than 25,000. The average is about 250. Genes and SNPs • How did scientists learn about DNA and mutations? • Study DNA (aka genomics) of different individuals in a species. • Compare/Contrast DNA of different species. • Similar DNA patterns emerge within and across species • Genes • “Junk” DNA • Markers/signposts like Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to ID traits. Codis Activity Situation • There was a break in at the school last night and all of the Prom and Senior Trip money is now missing. Cell phone records confirm three teachers were in the area at the time. Ms. Bash, Ms. Olson, and Mrs. Bryce all deny having anything to do with it. Luckily for the police, the criminal left some hair with skin tags. behind. Your goal: Use the CODIS worksheet to confirm or eliminate each of the suspects. Remember both columns must match the sample sites to verify police suspicions. Model Introns and Exons 1. Get a 15-20 cm strip of masking tape. 2. Pick 2 colors and write the following phrase. appropriately joined 3. Cut each group of colored letters apart from left to right and stick them to your desk in order by color. 4. Which of your colors is introns? exons? 5. Will a mutation in the introns be in the final protein? Why? 1/26 Bell Work Charles Pompuss travels around the world buying expensive art pieces and gems. He always insists on wearing dark glasses when he negotiates to hide his eyes. • What is the reasoning for his peculiar behavior? 1/26 Schedule • Notes Ch 14.3 “Genome Interactions” • Dog SNP Pt 1 • Work • “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due LATE • Dir Rdg Ch 14 - MONDAY Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – MONDAY 2. Old Kentucky Blues – LATE 3. CODIS Activity - TODAY Ch 14.3 “Genome Interactions” Objectives • Use genomes to compare organisms. • Describe ways DNA is stored other than chromosomes. • Explain how genes help multicellular organisms develop. Genome Interactions Intro Why do you think protein synthesis research has been focused on prokaryotes rather than eukaryotes? VS Genomes and the Diversity of Life Genomics revolutionized our knowledge of gene regulation and expression. • Genome: all of the DNA and genes that an organism has within its chromosomes. • Comparisons reveal basic biological similarities and relationships. Humans and chimpanzees share 98.5% DNA, and probably diverged from a common ancestor 7-12 mil years ago. Genomes and the Diversity of Life An (Almost) Universal Code • With few exceptions, the genetic code is the same in all organisms. • Some bacteria use a slightly different set of amino acids to make proteins. Genomes and the Diversity of Life Genome Size • Can be measured as an amount of DNA or a number of genes. Oraganism Bases Genes Microbes 400,000 - millions 400-9,300 Eukaryotes 100 mil – over 3 billion 6,000 – 100,000 Humans approx 3 billion 30,000 Genomes and the Diversity of Life DNA vs Genes • Not all DNA in a cell is part of a gene (introns/noncoding) or a chromosome. • Most bacteria have small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. They replicate independently and can be transferred. Bacteria sharing plasmids aka bacteria sex Genomes and the Diversity of Life DNA Versus Genes Mitochondria and chloroplasts each have their own DNA. • These genomes code for proteins and RNAs (rRNA and tRNA) that assist in the function of each organelle. • Basis for endosymbiosis theory. Mitochondria Chloroplasts Endosymbiosis Moving Beyond Chromosomes Mobile Genetic Elements (MGE) • Ex: plasmids, transposons, and viruses. • Units of DNA or RNA that move from one place to another. Moving Beyond Chromosomes Mobile Genetic Elements • Transposons: sets of genes that are move randomly are • aka “jumping genes” • Often inactivate nearby genes • Found in all organisms Jumping genes in corn often interfere with pigment genes. Moving Beyond Chromosomes Mobile Genetic Elements • Viruses infect cells by using the cells’ own replication processes to make new copies. • Some RNA viruses are retroviruses and produce DNA that becomes part of the host cell’s genome. • EX: HIV and Hepatitis B Moving Beyond Chromosomes Genetic Change • MGEs cause genetic change by bringing together new combinations of genes. • MGEs can transfer genetic material between individuals and even between species. Multicellular Development & Aging Cell Differentiation • Cell differentiation: new cells are modified and specialized as they multiply to form a body. • Gene regulation plays an important role in this process. Multicellular Development & Aging Cell Differentiation EX: A specific gene, called hox, is found in all animals with a head and tail. Mutations might cause one body part to develop in place of another or add/subtract parts. Multicellular Development & Aging Cell Death and Aging • In multicellular organisms, most of cells stop dividing once the organism is mature. • Almost all body cells are “programmed” to age and die. • At some point, the cell will simply shut down all functioning, gradually shrink, and eventually fall apart. Multicellular Development & Aging Cell Death and Aging • This cellular “suicide” is known as apoptosis. • Apoptosis seems to occur in consistent steps, like mitosis, but the mechanism isn’t completely understood. Multicellular Development & Aging Cell Death and Aging • Genetic Disorder: Progeria • Symptoms: Wrinkles, baldness, thin skin, small jaw with large head • Probable mechanism: Defective nuclear membrane, hinders mitosis • Results: Most die before reaching 13 Leon Botha, South African Hip Hop artist, died at 26 17 year old girl with progeria. Multicellular Development & Aging Cell Death and Aging • Aging has many effects on cells. • An example is the effect of aging on the ends of chromosomes (called telomeres). Multicellular Development & Aging Cell Death and Aging • As cells divide repeatedly, the telomeres lose nucleotides and become shortened. • In older cells, this shortening may cause mishandling of the chromosomes during mitosis and thus result in nonfunctioning cells. 1/27 Bell Work How many times can you subtract 5 from 25? Why? CAREFUL reading the question! 1/27 Schedule • Dog SNP Pt 1 • Work • “Old Kentucky Blues” Pt 2-3 in desk groups – due LATE • Dir Rdg Ch 14 - MONDAY Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – MONDAY 2. Old Kentucky Blues – LATE 3. CODIS Activity - LATE Mapping Genes to Traits in Dogs • Watch video introducing Dr. Karlsson’s work on the dog genome and why dogs are a good research subject. • Partners or Groups of 3 • Under “Case Studies” online • Fill in the blank or short answer in complete sentences • Read and answer questions Part 1 and start Pt 2 1/30 Bell Work • Solve the word puzzles. 1/30 Schedule • Dog SNP Pt 1-3 • Work • “Dir Rdg Ch 14 - TODAY Ch 13-14 Test “Molecular Basis of Genetics” WEDNESDAY Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – TODAY 2. Old Kentucky Blues – LATE 3. CODIS Activity - LATE Mapping Genes to Traits in Dogs Pt 1 “Procedure” and 2 “Intro to GWAS” • Read carefully, answers are in text. • Answer in sentences unless filling in a blank. • Pt 3 “Identify Correlations” (connections) • Sort cards into long, short, curly, and straight. • Count numbers of each nucleotide in the columns • Big differences are probably related to the phenotype • Pt 5 • Read carefully and interpret chart 1/31 Bell Work • Create an equation with subtraction and division that equals 31. 1/31 Schedule • Mapping Genes Dogs Pt 5 • Review Bingo • Work • “Dir Rdg Ch 14 - LATE Ch 13-14 Test “Molecular Basis of Genetics” WEDNESDAY Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – LATE 2. Mapping Genes TODAY Mapping Genes to Traits in Dogs Pt 1 “Procedure” and 2 “Intro to GWAS” • Read carefully, answers are in text. • Answer in sentences unless filling in a blank. • Pt 3 “Identify Correlations” (connections) • Sort cards into long, short, curly, and straight. • Count numbers of each nucleotide in the columns • Big differences are probably related to the phenotype • Pt 5 • Read carefully and interpret chart Review Bingo • Move around the room to find someone to answer the questions if needed. Have them sign it. • 5 across, vertically, or diagonally correctly to get a BINGO. • EC: • 1st = 3 pts • 2nd = 2 pts • 3rd = 1 pt FINISH! 2/1 Bell Work • Solve the word puzzles. 2/1 Schedule • 7 min to study, ask questions, etc. • Ch 13-14 “Molecular Basis” Test • Jaime Oliver – Teach Every Child About Food ALL assignments in by 3:30 TODAY if you take the test. Assignments: 1. Dir Rdg Ch 14 – LATE 2. Mapping Genes LATE 2/2 Bell Work There is a saying, “Hindsight is 20/20.” • What do you think that means? Parents gone, had a party. Now they’re back… 2/2 Schedule • Finish Ch 13-14 “Molecular Basis” Test – 15 min • Read an epigenetics article – due tomorrow • Define, process, results • Jaime Oliver – Teach Every Child About Food Assignments: What is Epigenetics? • Go to https://www.sciencenews.org/highschools/login • Read an article (or 3) about epigenetics. • In your notebook define epigenetics, describe process, and results for tomorrow. • USER ID: • Passcode: • Tracking ID: SNHS_030120_AZ 0874927cfd snhs_030120_az-169749 2/3 Bell Work • You’re shaking a set of three dice. What are the chances you will roll 6-6-6? 2/3 Schedule • Finish Ch 13-14 “Molecular Basis” Test? • Check for epigenetics assignment • Define, process, results • Jaime Oliver – Teach Every Child About Food Assignments: Epigenetics definition, process, results in notebook - TODAY Jamie Oliver: “Teach Every Child about Food” • Are you more likely to be murdered, die from obesity-related problems, or get lung cancer from smoking? • Name two of his problems with “Main Street” food. • What are at least two difficulties school lunch programs face? • According to him, why should students learn to cook?