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Name: ___________________ Buddhism Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming Comparative Religions Chart Christianity Hinduism Comparative Religions Chart Origins of Religion (Place? People?) Started by Siddhartha Gautama in Nepal 2500 years ago when he searched for the path to enlightenment Christianity originated in Roman occupied Jerusalem and wrestled with issues in the Jewish religion. It originated with Jesus of Nazareth, a Jewish prophet. Hinduism has no single founder but it originated in India. Name derived from the River Sindhu and used to describe the occupants at the time, the Aryans in the second century AD. Image of God (Name(s)? Number(s)?) No God or gods but they follow the path of the Buddha to enlightenment God (only one) Sacred Writings/Book Sutta Pitaka and Vinaya Pitaka - there are a large variety of scriptural The Bible Most believe in a Supreme God whose qualities are represented by a number of other gods. Main gods: Brahma, Shiva, Lakshmi, Vishnu (responsible for the creation and upkeep of the world) The four Vedas and their supplements (the Vedic texts) The Samhitas Islam Jainism The word Islam means “submission to the will of God” Islam was revealed over 1400 years ago in Mecca, Arabia when a number of prophets, including the Prophet Mohammad, were sent by Allah to teach them how to live under His law The people who follow Islam are called Muslims Images are not allowed There is only one God, Allah From India, Jains are strict vegetarians and live in a way that minimizes their use of the world’s resources Mahavira is the man who gave Jainism its modern day form The holy book is called the Qur’an There is also the Sunnah Agamas (contain the teachings of Mahavira Believe no gods or spiritual beings will help human beings Don’t believe in a creator god, but do believe in godliness Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming texts Guiding Principles/Beliefs The Eightfold Path The Four Noble Truths: Truth of suffering (Dukkha) Truth of the origin of suffering (Samudāya) Truth of the cessation of suffering (Nirodha) Truth of the path to the cessation of suffering (Magga) Jesus Christ is the Son of God Jesus was sent to save humanity from the consequences of its sins There is One God but that God has 3 elements: The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit Karma (action and reaction/harmony/go od and bad) and Samsara (reincarnation, rebirth of the soul dependent on ratio of good karma to bad) Dharma (duty, virtue, morality which uphold the universe and society) Atman (the eternal self/spirit/soul) No: fighting, greed, seeking, selfishness, pursuit of personal advantage, lying Rituals and Celebrations Meditation, pilgrimage, veneration of the Buddha Dharma Day (celebrates the day when the Buddha Easter – The Death and Resurrection of Christ Christmas – the birth of Christ Diwali, the Festival of Lights Holi (fertility and harvest, festival of colours) Basic articles of faith: - belief in Allah as the one and only God - Belief in angels Belief in the holy books Belief in the Prophets (including Ibrahim, Musa, Isa = Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad the final prophet) - belief in the Day of Judgement - Belief in predestination Allah – is eternal, omniscient, omnipotent – cant be seen, hear, has no gender There are two Muslim festivals set down in Islamic law: Eid ul Fitr (end of fasting and to thank Allah for help and strength to practice self-control Believe that animals and plants, as well as human beings contain living souls (each soul is of equal value) Seek to obtain ultimate liberation from the cycle of reincarnation Liberation is achieved by eliminating all karma from the soul The three guiding principles (the ‘three jewels’) are right belief, right knowledge, and right conduct The supreme principle is living in non-violence Mahavira Jayanti (celebrates the day of Mahavira’s death) Diwali (day when Mahavira gave his last teachings and attained ultimate Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming began teaching) Sangha Day (celebrates the community) Moral Codes/Rules The path to enlightenment is through practice and development of morality, meditation, and wisdom Focus on personal spiritual development Strive for a deep insight into the true nature of life and do not worship gods or deities. Buddhists seek to reach a state of nirvana. Nothing is fixed or permanent, change is always possible The 5 precepts: Not to kill or cause harm to other living The Ten Commandments: Have no other gods other than God Do not make or worship idols Do not take the name of the LORD in vain Remember the Sabbath day Honour your father and mother Do not murder Do not commit adultery Do not steal Do not bear false witness Do not covet Dharma (system of values) – duty, virtue, morality – the power that upholds the universe and society Act virtuously (universal rule but not particular. Everyone has their own version of what Dharma means to them and their circumstances) Correct action – service to humanity and to god. and Eid ul Adha (remembers the prophet Ibrahim’s willingness to sacrifice his son when Allah ordered him to) Ramadan (the 9th month of the Islamic calendar during which Muslims fast during the day) **The 5 pillars of Islam - Shahadah Declaration of faith - Salat - praying five times a day - Zakat - giving money to charity - Sawm - fasting - Hajj - a pilgrimage to Mecca** liberation) The 5 mahavratas (5 great vows) – nonattachment to possessions, not lying, not stealing, sexual restraint, nonviolence Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming Afterlife Beliefs (where does the soul go?) things, not taking the not given, avoid sexual misconduct, avoid false speech, abstain from drink and drugs that clouds the mind. Life is both endless and subject to impermanence, suffering, and uncertainty Buddhists believe in reincarnation (where individuals are reborn over and over again) Judaism Heaven or Hell (or Purgatory) depending on your actions during life. Reincarnation – cycle of birth, death, and rebirth dependent on karma Muslims believe in the continued existence of the soul and a transformed physical existence after death. There are days of judgement when all humans will be divided between the eternal Paradise and Hell Reincarnation (cycle of birth, death, rebirth) that one may eventually be released from Roman Paganism Sikhism Taoism Zoroastrianism Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming Origins of Religion (Place? People?) Image of God (Name(s)? Number(s)?) Judaism originated in the Middle East over 3500 years ago. It was founded by Moses though they trace their history back to Abraham. One God Sacred Writings/Book The central religious text is the Torah Guiding Principles/Beliefs Believe that there is only one God with whom they have a covenant Stems from Greek and Egyptian religion (adapts other religion gods and goddesses and mythological stories) Founded by Guru Nanak in the 16th century AD, based in India (Punjab district). Also referred to as Daoism, originated in China 2000 years ago. Thousands of different gods and goddesses (some overlap) The main pantheon consist of Jupiter, Minerva, Apollo, Mars, Saturn, Mercury, Pluto, Juno, Venus, Neptune (think planets!) During the Empire, the Emperor was seen as a god There are compilations of myths, but no true sacred texts or books – most tradition was passed orally Monotheistic religion (one god) - God There is no god, but there is the Tao (though the Tao isn’t worshiped). There are many deities that are worshiped however, as they are part of the universe. Guru Granth Sahib, a book that Sikhs consider a living Guru Each god was responsible for different aspects of life. Believe that the way to lead a good life is to: keep God in heart and mind at all times, Tao Te Ching (The Way and Its Power) – includes advice on life and the nature of the universe Chuang-tzu – collection of wisdom of many people The Tao is the Way It is a religion of unity and opposites; Yin and Yang One of the world’s oldest monotheistic religions. Founded by the Prophet Zoroaster in ancient Iran, about 3500 years ago There is one God called Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord) and He created the world There are also a number of accompanying immortals The Avesta (book of Holy Scriptures) – an older and newer version The elements are pure and fire represents God’s light or wisdom Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming Rituals and Celebrations In exchange for all the good that God has done for the Jewish people, they keep God’s laws and try to bring holiness into every aspect of their lives The main principle was “I give so that you will give” – people sacrificed to the gods so that they would help them in return Acceptance and adaptation (Romans were willing to let others worship who they wanted, and take the good aspects of those religions and make them their own) live honestly and work hard, treat everyone equally, be generous to the less fortunate, serve others God: There is only one, God is without gender or form, everyone has access to God, everyone is equal before God, a good life is lived as part of a community, superstitions have no value Yin Yang sees the world as filled with complementary forces (action/nonaction, light/dark, hot/cold, etc. Keep the Sabbath every Saturday Yom Kippur – day of atonement Hanukkah Lupercalia – ancient Valentine’s day! To honour Venus and her son Cupid Keeping the feriae “days instituted for the sake of the gods” – days when rites performed and business suspended. The Emperor’s birthday (remember, he was a god) Diwali (celebrates the release from prison of the 6th guru and several princes) Festival of Lights Rituals/practices: Meditation, feng shui, fortune telling, reading and chanting of scriptures Dualism – coexistence yet separation of good and evil (cosmically and morally) Ahura Mazda is: omniscient (knows everything), omnipotent (all powerful), omnipresent (is everywhere), impossible for humans to conceive, unchanging, creator of life, source of goodness and happiness. Pray several times a day Navjote – initiation ceremony into the religion Khordad Sal – birthday of Zoroaster Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming Moral Codes/Rules Every week Jews must observe the Sabbath (the Jewish holy day, and keep its laws and customs) Afterlife Beliefs (where does the soul go?) The Torah emphasizes immediate, concrete, physical rewards and punishments rather than abstract future ones. There is, however, believed to be an existence after death. Resurrection and reincarnation are also believed “I give so that you will give” Respect and worship the gods Make a sacrifice to the gods if told to (especially if hoping for a victory in a war) Anyone can worship whatever gods they want, so long as they worship specific gods if told to (like a household god or a local god who takes care of the village – you don’t want to anger them) A person’s spirit went to the underworld after the person died. To get there you had to cross the river Styx so when someone was buried, the family would put coins on their eyes to help pay the ferryman (Charon) Goal is to become one with God One does this by focusing on their relationship with God and the community The 5 Ks (identify members of the Khalsa/ Sikh community) – Kesh (uncut hair), Kara (a steel bracelet), Kanga (a wooden comb), Kaccha (cotton underwear), Kirpan (steel sword) – simplicity, clean mind/body, etc. Reincarnation – cycle of birth, life, rebirth – the quality of life depends on karma (leftover from their past life) Taoism promotes: achieving harmony or union with nature, the pursuit of spiritual immortality, being ‘virtuous’ (but not ostentatiously so), self-development Free will – choice to follow the path of Evil or the path of Righteousness Must pray several times a day in the Fire Temple 3 basic moral principles: Humata (good thoughts), Hukhata (good words). Havarashta (good deeds). Immortality – the idea that as one lives, they become closer and closer to nature, and death is the final step in uniting with the universe If take one takes the path of Evil, they end up in Hell, if they take the path of Righteousness, they end up in Heaven The soul remained in the world for 3 days in the care of Sraosha (one of the angels), then passed into the spirit day the next day. The soul meets a tribunal where justice is served, so that Social Studies 8 Ms. Hemming good souls go to heaven and bad souls go to hell.