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• 11/28 Focus: – Rome and Carthage fought over control of the Mediterranean sea. Control of this body of water meant gaining control of trade. Once Rome won the battle they were able to make more money and grow more than ever before • Do Now – Identify the two main social groups in Rome. Review • What was the difference between the government in Athens and the government in Rome? Ancient Rome Roman Military Punic Wars The Roman Military • All landowning men 1746 had to serve in the army during wartime • Roman army organized into legions – Legions divided into centuries led by Centurions – Highly disciplined and a well trained soldiers • Rome Takes Italy • 509 BC – 264 BC • Romans defeat Etruscans and Greek cities in southern Italy • Romans granted conquered people with many of the rights of Roman citizens – Demanded soldiers from conquered people The Punic Wars • Roman expansion into Sicily brought it into conflict with Carthage • Carthage was a Phoenician trading colony in North Africa • Rome and Carthage fought a series of wars for control of the Mediterranean The First Punic War • Carthage-strong navy vs. Romestrong army • Early part of the war fought at sea allowed Carthage to win early battles • Rome adapts and strengthens its own navy • Rome is able to defeat Carthage – Carthage pays for war damages and gives up Sicily The Second Punic War • Rome and Carthage come into conflict over control of Spain (218201 BC) • Carthaginian general Hannibal invades Italy – Well trained army and war elephants cross the Pyrenees and Alps – Hannibal defeats Roman armies and creates chaos in Italy The Second Punic War • Italy invades Carthage – Led by Scipio – Hannibal forced to return to Carthage • Scipio defeats Hannibal outside Carthage • Carthage forced to give up its lands in Spain and in North Africa • Army and navy are destroyed The Third Punic War • Roman Senator Cato pushes for the destruction of the Carthage – Many people were still angry for the huge losses suffered when Hannibal invaded Italy • Rome declares war against Carthage (149 BC) and Macedonia (Greece) And to conclude…Carthage must be destroyed The Third Punic War • Rome defeats the Macedonians and take control of Greece and Persia • Destroys Carthage and enslaves the entire population – It is said that the Romans sprinkled salt into ground so that nothing would ever grow in Carthage again • Rome dominates the Mediterranean – Influx of Greek culture into Rome • Closure • Why were the Punic Wars fought? • Why did some Romans have such hatred for Carthage after the second Punic War? • What was one effect of the Roman victory in the Punic Wars?