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• 11/28 Focus:
– Rome and Carthage fought over control of
the Mediterranean sea. Control of this
body of water meant gaining control of
trade. Once Rome won the battle they
were able to make more money and grow
more than ever before
• Do Now
– Identify the two main social groups in
• What was the difference between the
government in Athens and the
government in Rome?
Ancient Rome
Roman Military
Punic Wars
The Roman Military
• All landowning men 1746 had to serve in the
army during wartime
• Roman army organized
into legions
– Legions divided into
centuries led by
– Highly disciplined and a
well trained soldiers
Rome Takes Italy
• 509 BC – 264 BC
• Romans defeat
Etruscans and Greek
cities in southern Italy
• Romans granted
conquered people with
many of the rights of
Roman citizens
– Demanded soldiers from
conquered people
The Punic Wars
• Roman expansion
into Sicily brought
it into conflict with
• Carthage was a
Phoenician trading
colony in North
• Rome and Carthage
fought a series of
wars for control of
the Mediterranean
The First Punic War
• Carthage-strong
navy vs. Romestrong army
• Early part of the
war fought at sea
allowed Carthage to
win early battles
• Rome adapts and
strengthens its own
• Rome is able to
defeat Carthage
– Carthage pays for
war damages and
gives up Sicily
The Second Punic War
• Rome and Carthage
come into conflict over
control of Spain (218201 BC)
• Carthaginian general
Hannibal invades Italy
– Well trained army and
war elephants cross the
Pyrenees and Alps
– Hannibal defeats Roman
armies and creates chaos
in Italy
The Second Punic War
• Italy invades
– Led by Scipio
– Hannibal forced to
return to Carthage
• Scipio defeats
Hannibal outside
• Carthage forced to
give up its lands in
Spain and in North
• Army and navy are
The Third Punic War
• Roman Senator Cato
pushes for the
destruction of the
– Many people were still
angry for the huge
losses suffered when
Hannibal invaded Italy
• Rome declares war
against Carthage (149
BC) and Macedonia
And to
must be destroyed
The Third Punic War
• Rome defeats the Macedonians and take
control of Greece and Persia
• Destroys Carthage and enslaves the
entire population
– It is said that the Romans sprinkled salt
into ground so that nothing would ever grow
in Carthage again
• Rome dominates the Mediterranean
– Influx of Greek culture into Rome
• Why were the Punic Wars fought?
• Why did some Romans have such hatred
for Carthage after the second Punic
• What was one effect of the Roman
victory in the Punic Wars?