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Transcript
Organisms & Their
Environment
Section 2-1
Animals that share our world in PA
Some Tenaglia
family pets
Animals that share our world in PA
according to eNature.com
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246 species of birds
92 species of butterflies
45 species of mammals
73 species of reptiles and amphibians
312 species of trees
760 species of wildflowers
Animals that share our world in PA
Turkey Vulture
Cathartes aura
Mallard
Anas platyrhynchos
ecology
• Scientific study of the interactions
between organisms and their
environment
Animals that share our world in PA
Virginia Opossum
Didelphis virginiana
Eastern Gray Squirrel
Sciurus carolinensis
Animals that share our world in PA
Star-nosed Mole
Condylura cristata
Little Brown Bat
Myotis lucifugus
Animals that share our world in PA
Black Bear
Ursus americanus
Animals that share our world in PA
Eastern Red-bellied Turtle
Pseudemys rubriventris
(Chrysemys rubriventris)
Eastern Box Turtle
Terrapene carolina
Biotic
• All the living things in an environment
• Plants, animals, fungus, protists,
bacteria.
Abiotic
• All the non-living things in an
environment.
• Water, humidity, rocks, soil,
atmosphere, temperature, amount of
light, pH, elements.
Biotic vs Abiotic
• Wind, humidity, and rocks are all
abiotic in a terrestrial ecosystem.
Biotic vs Abiotic
• In a pond ecosystem, ducks,
mosquitoes, pond plants, and frogs
are biotic factors.
Biotic vs Abiotic
Identify the abiotic factor labeled in the ecosystem shown
above.
a.
Mouse b. butterfly c.
rock d.
tree
Problem solving lab 2.1
Questions are on
p.37 in textbook
Levels of Organization ~
organism
an individual living thing
Organism
This wildebeest is an individual
organism.
Levels of Organization ~
Population
A group of individuals of the same species,
living in the same place,
at the same time.
Population
A herd of wildebeest is a population.
This is a population of purpleflowered musk thistle.
And this herd is a population of bison.
Population
Colonies of bacteria in a petri dish
Population
Penguins on
an island in
the South
Atlantic
Ocean
Population
Impala on a plain in Kenya
Levels of Organization ~
Community
• An ecologist who studies how several
species in an area interact is
interested in the biological
organization called a community.
• Communities are groups of interacting
populations of different species.
Community
A close-up of several species:
wildebeest, lion, giraffe, elephant,
rhino and vulture makes a community.
Levels of Organization ~
Ecosystem
• An ecologist who studies how several
species in an area interact among each
other and with the abiotic parts of the
environment is interested in the biological
organization level called an ecosystem.
• Includes all of the living and non-living
factors.
Levels of Organization ~
Biosphere
• In ecological classification, the next
biggest level after the ecosystem.
• Includes all the places on Earth that
can support life.
• Approximately 8 km below & above
sea level.
An individual
organism is
part of a
population,
a community,
an ecosystem,
and the
biosphere.
Levels of Organization ~
a question
The group of animals above is an example of what?
a. community
b. ecosystem
c. population
d. biosphere
What type of ecosystem is shown in the figure above?
• a.
• b.
terrestrial
population
c.
d.
acquatic
abiotic
Habitat
• The place where an organism lives
• Where it obtains it’s energy, water
and shelter
• Two or more species can share the
same habitat
Habitat
• Sea stars live in saltwater
ecosystems.
• Some species live in shallow tidal
pools, while others live in the deepest
parts of the oceans.
Niche
• How an organism lives
• Its role or job
• How it obtains its energy, water and shelter
• An organism’s interactions
• Two species can not share the same niche
Niche
• Cougars are predators that often eat
weakened or diseased animals.
Niche
A lion’s niche includes all of its
relationships with its
environment.
Tick on a lion’s face
Lion fighting with hyenas
Lions
feeding on
a kill
Lions drinking at a water hole
Symbiosis
• 2 different species
• In a close relationship
• Living together – one on or in the
other
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Anemones and Clownfish
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Both organisms benefit
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Pederson
cleaning
shrimp with
their host
corkscrew
anenome.
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Bulldozer shrimp
with their lookout
sailfin blenny, note
that both shrimp,
which are nearly
blind, are making
contact with the
blenny with their
antennas.
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Oxpeckers (a kind of bird) land on rhinos or zebras and eat
ticks and other parasites that live on their skin.
• The oxpeckers get food and the beasts get pest control.
• Also, when there is danger, the oxpeckers fly upward and
scream a warning, which helps the zebra
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Oxpeckers eat the parasites off of large animals
like this African buffalo.
• But they're also parasites themselves, keeping
wounds open and picking at scabs.
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Oxpecker again..
This time on a
giraffe
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
•
•
•
Bees fly from flower to flower gathering nectar, which they make into food,
benefiting the bees.
When they land in a flower, the bees get some pollen on their hairy bodies,
and when they land in the next flower, some of the pollen from the first one
rubs off, pollinating the plant. This benefits the plants.
In this symbiotic relationship, the bees get to eat, and the flowering plants
get to reproduce.
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
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•
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Plants and fungi occupy completely
different categories in taxonomy.
Yet their lives are so utterly
entwined that about 90 percent of
all the plants in the world have
their own fungal “partners” that
allow them to survive [source:
Wakeford].
The fungus in question is
mycorrhizal.
Many mycorrhizal varieties live in
close association with trees and
other plants, drawing in nutrients
from deep underground and
providing them to the tree in
exchange for a share of the energy
(in the form of sugars) produced by
the tree’s photosynthesis.
The mushrooms and toadstools
often seen around the bases of
trees are actually the reproductive
organs of vast subterranean fungal
networks that plants tap into in
order to gain nutrients more
efficiently.
Sharp-scaly Pholiota
(Pholiota spuarrosoides)
mushroom
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
•
•
•
British Soldiers – my favorite lichen
A lichen is a fungus and an algae living together
Both the alga and the fungus are benefited from their relationship in a lichen.
Symbiotic ~ mutualism
• Some wax-eating
birds are known as
honey guides
because they may
be followed by
humans to wild
beehives.
• When the humans
(or other animals)
take honey from
the hives, the
birds are able to
get to the wax.
Symbiotic ~ mutualisim
• A parasite and its host evolve together.
• The parasite adapts to its environment by living in and using
the host in ways that harm it.
• Hosts also develop ways of getting rid of or protecting
themselves from parasites.
• Ladybugs live on plants, eating the aphids and benefiting by
getting food, while the plant benefits by being rid of the
aphids.
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
• In the ecology of
orchids, commensalisms
with different types of
fungi is essential,
because their seeds have
lost nutritive tissue so
they can sprout and
develop only with the
help of other organisms.
• Those other organisms
are always some kinds of
fungi which live on the
ground.
Orchis tridentata
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
• One benefits
• The other isn’t effected
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
• In the forest,
orchids live
attached to the
branches of trees.
• We call them
epitytes.
• The orchid gets
the light it needs.
• The tree is not
aware.
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
• Commensalisms are symbioses that
are beneficial to one organism and
neither beneficial nor detrimental to
the other.
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
•
Remora fish have a symbiotic relationship with sharks and other
larger sea animals.
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
• Cocos Islands, Indian Ocean: Manta ray
with remoras
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
•
•
•
A common example of commensalism involves fish, often juveniles, and
jellyfish.
The juvenile fish swim around the jellyfish, presumably gaining
something of a safe haven from potential predators.
It is thought that the jellyfish is not affected by the relationship
because it is not eaten by the fish nor does it eat the fish.
Symbiotic ~ commensalisms
• The most likely
pollinator for the
pitcher plant ,
are the
commensal
spiders within
the pitcher
community.
The California Pitcher Plant
Symbiotic ~ parasitism
• Tomato hornworm & the pupa from a parasitic wasp that was
living inside of it.
• The tiny wasp picture is the same type that laid her eggs
inside the caterpillar
Symbiotic ~ parasitism
• One benefits
• The other is harmed
Symbiotic ~ parasitism
• This is a flea… what does it do?
Predator
• Hunts & kills for
food
• Ginglymostoma
cirratum
Nurse Shark