Download Wednesday 10/9 * 4.2 Niches and Community Interactions

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Transcript
Ch. 4 + outlining
• Today we will…
– Reflect on ch. 3 and
assess our learning of
the objectives
– Get test back
– Go over outlining
technique
– Outline ch. 4 sec. 1
• ET: What is an outline?
What are some components
of a great outline?
What goes in the box?
?
DEF. Outline: an organized set of personal
notes created from text or lesson
• Components of an outline
– Indents/bullets: indent and bullet all subtopics
– Headings: create headings to organize the
information into smaller chunks.
*note: the book does this for you
– Highlighting: it is often helpful to highline
or underline headings that fall under the
same topic
*This is another way to color code your notes
4.1 Climate
• Today I will…
– Identify factors that influence
climate change
– Describe what makes climate
change occur
– Explain the greenhouse
effect.
– Create a climatograph to
examine climate throughout
the worlds different biomes.
Weather VS. Climate
• Weather – Day to day
conditions of the earths
atmosphere
• Climate – A regions long
term patterns of temp.
and precipitation
• Microclimate?
The Green House Effect (factor 1)
• Green house gasses CO2, methane, and water
vapor. These gases create a barrier that trap
solar energy and warm the earth – The Green
House Effect
Latitude creates climate zones
(factor 2)
• Polar
• Temperate
• Tropical
Global Winds and Ocean Currents
(Factor 3) pg. 98
Introduction to Climate Graphs
(Climatograph pg. 112-115)
• You are to make a
bar graph for the
precipitation data.
• Then plot the
temperature data in
a line graph
• Use the climate
graphes on pg.
4.2 Niches and Community Interactions
LT: Today I will…
• Define a niche
• Describe and explain factors that
shape the overall composition of a
community
– Competition, limiting
resources/nutrients, predation, human
impact, herbivory, symbiotic
relationships
• Describe group behaviors that
increase individual species’ rates of
survival
– Hunting, schooling, flocking, migrating,
swarming
• ET: Make a vocabulary
flip for the following
words – make sure to
develop definitions in
your own words 15 min.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Tolerance
Habitat
Niche
Resources
Competitive Exclusion
Predation
Herbivory
Keystone species
Habitat: Where an organism lives
• The range of physical and biological conditions
in which a species lives and the way it obtains
what it needs to survive and reproduce =
Niche
1. Resources – water, nutrients, light, food, space
2. Physical Aspects – climate (moisture etc..)
3. Biological – reproduction, food
Tolerance
• The ability to survive and reproduce
under a range of environmental
circumstances
Competitive Exclusion Principle
• No two species can occupy the same niche, in
the same place, at the same time
Bamboo Lemurs
• Share Resources?
• LT: Same as
last time
• Read the section
entitled “dividing
Resources” on pg. 101
• What is resource
sharing? How does it
shape an ecosystem?
• Species may divide
up the resources in
stead of competing
for them
Sharing Resources
Where do
they fit?
Read the
descriptions
below and
place the letter
in the box
where you think
each bird
belongs
Symbioses
• Today I will…
– Describe the role
predation and herbivory
play in shaping
communities
– Identify the three types
of symbiotic
relationships in nature
• ET: Read the keystone
species article? (5 min)
Keystone Species: A species who’s
survival is “key” to stability of the
ecosystem
Article on keystone species
How does predation and herbivory
shape communities?
• Predator-Prey
Relationships: this
impacts the size and
location of prey
populations
– Ex. Birds of prey control
the population size,
feeding and location of
various small mammals
• Herbivore-Plant
Relationships: this
impacts the size and
location of plant
populations.
– Ex. White tailed dear
degrading their favorite
plant food source
Symbiosis
• Mutualism -  + 
(Both Benefit)
Ex. Clown fish and sea anemones
• Parasitism -  + 
(One Benefits + One is harmed)
Ex. Leech on a human
• Commensalism -  + neutral
(One Benefits + one is neutral)
Ex. Barnacles on a grey whale
4.2 Ecosystem Relationships
• LT: Same as Friday
• ET: Use the following terms and explain how
they shape and ecosystem and increase a
species ability to survive
– Competition, limiting resources/nutrients,
predation, human impact, herbivory, mutualism,
commensalism, parasitism, migration, flocking
4.3 Succession
• LT: Today I will…
– Compare/contrast the two types of ecological succession
– Describe the stages of succession in an ecosystem that has
been disturbed
• ET: What kinds of disturbances cause an
ecosystem to undergo change?
Ecological Succession: changes in
an ecosystem over time.
Where have you seen succession?
• Newly paved driveway
• Cleaning your room
• Cutting down a tree
• Moving to a new house
• A mall throughout the holidays
2 Types of
Succession
• Primary: occurs when no
soil exists.
– Ex. Volcanic eruption
• Secondary: occurs when
existing communities are
not completely wiped
out.
– Ex. Farmer plowing a field
Succession Foldable pg. 106
• Building This foldable will help us to…
1. describe the stages of succession
2. compare/contrast primary and
secondary succession
4.3 Succession
• LT: Today I will…
– Compare/contrast the
two types of ecological
succession
– Describe the stages of
succession in an
ecosystem that has been
disturbed
• ET: Pick up a copy of the
article on Mt. St.
Helens. Answer the
following questions:
Analogy of Succession
• With your group, think of an “everyday”
scenario that could be used as an analogy for
explaining the process of succession. (review
the definition of succession)
• Your groups is going to create a poster of this
analogy that must include the following
Descriptive title
 Colored Pictures of each stage
Explanation of stage
Pioneering
Intermediate
Climax
picture
picture
Picture
explanation
explanation
explanation
Mt. St. Helens:
A story of
Ecological
Succession
What?
When?
Why?
Mt. St. Helens Article (Assessment)
• What type of succession is going on in the Mt.
St. Helens area?
• What stage is it in? (Pioneer, intermediate, or
climax) What is your evidence?