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Unit 1: Early Marketing Thinking ideas
Principles of Marketing (MM101)
Definition of Marketing
Kotler (1972) defines marketing as a social and managerial process by which individuals and or
groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with
Key terms in the definition
Social process – marketing involves interactions of human beings during the exchange
Managerial – it involves fundamentals of management which include planning, organising, leading,
implementation and control
Process – ongoing activity, never ending, not sporadic
Individuals and groups – marketing activities take place involving parties either as individuals or
Needs – state of felt deprivation, drive which propels action towards achieving a certain objective, a
need is usually expressed in a general mode
Wants – a want is expressed in a more specific way and usually in a luxurious mode
Value – refers to how something is worthy usually expressed in monetary terms. It also refers to the
amount of benefits that accrue to the parties less expenses incurred in obtaining such benefits.
CIM – defines marketing as a management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and
satisfying customer requirements profitably.
Identify key terms in the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM)’s marketing definition.
Role of Marketing
Identifying customer needs and wants
Providing market information on product development projects
Providing interface between the organisation and the market
Gathering information about market dynamics (competitor activities)
Distribution of products from where they are produced to places convenient for the
Promotional activities
Evolution of the Marketing Concept
It evolved from the primitive bartering process
Barter trade involved exchanging products for other products of equal or equivalent value
Conditions for Bartering process
There must be at least two participants
Each party must have something desired by another party
Items exchanged must be of equal or equivalent value
Marketing as we know and practice it today evolved through several stages/eras/philosophies as
Production orientation
Began around 1600
Marketing was disregarded and mgt believed that consumers would on their own accord
look for products and services they needed
Adam Smith (1776) criticised this approach in his book the Wealth of Nations, when he said
“Consumption is the sole end and purpose of production”
This approach was ignored until much later
Before mechanization families could produce goods for consumption
Certain families started developing skills to specialise producing specific goods on order and
for bartering process
Only products needed could be produced, a clear indication that the process was market
driven, However after the industrial revolution this attitude was abandoned as goods were
produced in mass by machines.
Management was concerned with production problems and all management efforts were
dedicated towards this.
Supply eventually exceeded demand
Gradually, stocks of goods began piling and accumulating bringing mgt to realise the
importance of getting rid of accumulated stocks
Product orientation
Other businesses are guided by this concept, which holds that consumers favour those
products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features. Managers in these
organizations focus on making superior products and improving them over time, assuming
that buyers can appraise quality and performance.
Juran (1954) fitness for use-design, conformance, availability, safety and field use
Crosby (1979) conformance to requirements
Deming (1989) conformance to a set of standards, (b) a product that meets customer wants
and needs
Selling Orientation
It began around 1900
Management realised that something had to be done to get rid of the piling stocks
During this time seller’s market became a buyer’s market
Ads were placed to inform consumers on the availability of products
Sales reps were employed to push products to the market
However much producers tried to push the products, goods could not sale fast and
management instituted unethical selling strategies.
Camels were used in transporting goods to far and near places
Growing complaints emanating from unethical selling practices led to the birth of
consumerism in the USA
Consumerism is a social movement aimed at protecting the rights of consumers against
exploitation by unscrupulous producers or service providers.
Marketing concept
The marketing concept, based on central tenets crystallized in the mid-1950s, challenges the
three business orientations we just discussed. The marketing concept holds that the key to
achieving organizational goals consists of the company being more effective than its
competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating customer value to its chosen target
markets. Theodore Levitt of Harvard drew a perceptive contrast between the selling and
marketing concepts: “Selling focuses on the needs of the seller; marketing on the needs of
the buyer. Selling is preoccupied with the seller’s need to convert his product into cash;
marketing with the idea of satisfying the needs of the customer by means of the product and
the whole cluster of things associated with creating, delivering and finally consuming it.” The
marketing concept rests on four pillars: target market, customer needs, integrated
marketing, and profitability.
Societal Marketing concept
Some have questioned whether the marketing concept is an appropriate philosophy in an
age of environmental deterioration, resource shortages, explosive population growth, world
hunger and poverty, and neglected social services. Are companies that successfully satisfy
consumer wants necessarily acting in the best, long-run interests of consumers and society?
The marketing concept sidesteps the potential conflicts among consumer wants, consumer
interests, and long-run societal welfare.
Relationship Marketing concept/Mega Marketing orientation
1to1 marketing
Moving away from transactional marketing focusing on a relational approach
New ideas and thinking e.g. CRM, KAM
Unit 2: The Marketing Environment
Internal Environment
6 Players i.e customers, competitors, shareholders, employees, suppliers and the media
External Environment
Unit 3: Market Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning
Unit objectives
To explain the concept of market segmentation
To highlight prerequisites for effective market segmentation
To explain the bases for market segmentation
To highlight the merits and demerits of segmentation
To explain the term “target marketing”
To outline factors considered when selecting a target market
The marketing concept calls for marketers to develop a market offering that is capable of satisfying
customer needs, demands AND PREFERENCES. In an ideal situation, marketers are expected to
provide a customized product, a separate price and unique promotion and an exclusive place for
every potential customer in the market. However, this is not feasible as it becomes far too expensive
and demanding especially in a highly heterogeneous market. Marketers realised that trying to satisfy
each and every customer in the market is very costly and unrealistic, therefore they decided to
generalise the needs of the heterogeneous market. Moreover, marketers realised that they cannot
be “all things to all people” but they have to focus on satisfying specific customer needs and to
concentrate on what they do best for them to remain competitive on the market.
The Aggregate market
Before the concept of market segmentation, most companies were pursuing a market aggregation
strategy. In this approach, companies would develop one product and supplied to the market hoping
that such a product would appeal to every consumer in the market place. Henry Ford pursued this
strategy where he manufactured one standard model car the ‘T Model’ and the pay off line was “you
can get it as long as it is in black”. This strategy completely ignores the differences exhibited by
different consumers in the market. Before 1950, Coca Cola also pursued a market aggregation
strategy by offering one standard product to all the masses of consumers throughout the world.
Before 1980, banks throughout the world were also offering one or few banking services believing
that these could appeal to the customers. Today the situation is different as banks are now offering
a variety of services appealing to the babies, school children, pensioners, professionals and investors
among others. Taking a Zimbabwean perspective, identify companies that were as well as those that
are still pursuing a market aggregation strategy.
Segmentation defined.
Van Der Walt (1996) defines market segmentation as a process of dividing a heterogeneous market
into fairly homogeneous subsets of customers. Each segment is assumed to have homogeneous
needs and will respond in a similar fashion to the marketing strategy. Delta beverages market can be
segmented into the following segments:
Lager segment
Carbonated soft drink segment
Sorghum or Chibuku segment
NB above segments can still be subdivided into small subsets e.g the lager segment can be
subdivided into premier lager market (bohlingers, Pilsener, Zambezi, etc.) and low cost lagers (Eagle,
Lion, Castle, Black label)
Merits of segmenting the market
Allows marketers to focus more accurately on customer needs
The differences exhibited on the market can easily be identified and respond accordingly
A greater degree of customer satisfaction can be realised
Easy to identify opportunities in the market
Allows for customisation of the market offering
Facilitates resource allocation
Choice of promotional tools is facilitated
Demerits of segmenting markets
Developing products for each segment and separate marketing strategies becomes
Limited market coverage
Excessive differentiation may lead to proliferation of products and services resulting in
cannibalisation (This is a situation where one product takes away the market share for
another existing product of the same firm.)
Requirements for effective for effective segmentation
It must be borne in mind that market segmentation should satisfy mainly two stakeholders i.e
customers - offering products that create satisfaction and shareholder (through profitability). When
segmenting markets, consideration should be given to the criteria suggested by Kotler (1992) in Van
Der Walt (1996). Requirements include:(1). The market must be measurable – consider factors such as market size, purchasing power,
potential profit and profile of the market must be measurable.
(2). It must be large enough – Normally a segment that is too small may not be profitable as
compared to a large market.
(3). It must be accessible – the marketer must be able to reach the segment either through physical
or electronic means. Also think of the promotional tools that can be used to communicate with the
target audience, e.g people in the rural areas in Zimbabwe may not be accessible through internet or
online advertising
(4). It must be actionable – it must be possible to develop separate products for each segment. The
firm must have staff and resources to serve the segment
(5). It must be differentiable – customers in different segments must exhibit different needs and
desires. For example, married women and unmarried woman must respond differently to the
marketing strategy (Sale of perfume) if otherwise it can be treated as one segment
Q. Africa Sun wants to segment its hotel market into five sub markets. State and describe the
submarkets. Discuss the steps that are followed when a marketer wants to segment a market. What
are some of the weaknesses of the multiple segmentation approach?
Segmenting Consumer markets
Geographic segmentation
The market is divided according to geographic variables such as nations, regions, states countries or
locations. This is important because consumers in different locations exhibit different needs and
wants. For instance consumers in hot countries require motor vehicles with cooling system while
those in hot countries require vehicles with warm facilities. With segmentation marketers can
customize the marketing mix and marketing strategies.
Size of the city or town (under 10 000, 10 000-20 000, under 1000000, 1000 000 etc
Density (urban, rural, suburban
Climate summer rainfall, winter rainfall, very hot, humid, very hot and dry
Demographic segmentation
Market is divided on the basis of variables such as age, sex, gender, family size, income, occupation,
education, religion, race, generation, and nationality. These variables are believed to be the most
popular variables employed by marketers in segmenting consumer markets.
Gender (female/males)
Age (youth, teenagers, middle aged, elderly, etc)
Family size (under five children, above 5 and below 10, ten plus)
Family life cycle (young, married, without children, young married with children, older
married with children , empty nest)
Income less than US$500, Below $1000, US$1500-$2000, $5000 and more
Occupation (professional, managerial, clerical, white colour, farmers, students, house wives,
unemployed, retired
Religion (Hinduism, Budhaism, Christianity, Shintoism, Jewish
Race (black, coloured, white, Asian)
Education (professors, doctorate holders, masters degree, First degreed, diplomas, none)
Psychographic segmentation
Divides the market based on variables such as
Social class (upper class, upper middle class, lower middle class, lower class
Lifestyle – trend seekers, status, casual, air travellers, holiday makers
Personality – dependant, independent, authority, gregarious, ambitious
Behavioural segmentation
Market is divided on the basis of variables such as
Purchase occasion regular use, special occasion)
Benefits sought (economy, convenience, prestige,, speed
User status – non user, ex-user, potential, user, regular user)
Usage rate (heavy user, light user, medium user)
Loyalty status, (none, medium, strong, absolute)
Sensitivity segmentation
Quality, price, service
Bases for segmenting industrial markets
Q. State and outline three bases that companies use when segmenting industrial markets.
Target marketing
In selecting which segment to enter the marketer has to examine opportunities and threats in the
various segments. The firm has to decide the number of segments it can serve and this is done after
an assessment of the attractiveness of the segment. The following factors must be considered before
qualifying a segment
Segment size
Growth potential of the segment
Segment structural attractiveness (level of competition in the segment, existence of potential
substitutes may limit price freedom, and profits that can be earned from that segment, relative
power of buyers affects segment attractiveness, will try to force prices down)
Company resources and objectives
Expected profitability
Assessing the attractiveness of segment
Attractiveness factors
Large Market size
Growth rate of segment
Good Access to raw materials
Favourable Regulatory climate
Fewer competitors
High prospects of Profit potential
Investment intensity
Total score
It can therefore be concluded that above segment is fairly or relatively attractive since the total score
is above half. Decision can be that of penetrating the market.
*Rating is on a 5 point scale, 5 = very attractive
**Weight on a 10 point scale, 10 = very important
Selecting the target market
There are basically 3 broad approaches namely concentrated, differentiated and
undifferentiated marketing
(1). Concentrated marketing / Niche marketing
Most suitable when a company has limited resources
Concentrating one offering to the segment or niche(s)
Greater knowledge of consumer needs
A company targets one or few segments which it can fully serve in terms of customising
products, and other marketing mix variables
This is predominantly a strategy followed by smaller firms
Firm can achieve greater customer satisfaction
The challenge is that a firm’s eggs are all in one basket
The strategy leads to greater expertise in production, distribution and promotion
Risk of product failure is high
If competitors enter that market the market can finds itself in the cold
Q. Identify a company in Zimbabwe that pursues niche or concentrated marketing strategy and discuss
the merits and demerits of this strategy
(2). Differentiated Marketing
Enterprise selects two or more segments developing separate strategies for each segment
Allows the firm to cater for specific diverse needs of the different segments
General Motors follows this strategy and is developing cars for each ‘
purse, personality and purpose’
Expensive strategy since the firm has to develop separate strategy for each segment
(production costs, admin costs, promotion costs, inventory costs since a greater variety of
products have to be maintained.)
Undifferentiated marketing/mass marketing
A firm disregards differences on the market and targets the whole market with one offer
Strategy focuses on what is common rather than on what is different
Firm develops a product and strategies that will appeal to the majority
A firm may have problems in competing with firms that focuses on particulars segments with
specific marketing mix strategy
Micro marketing
Is the practice of tailoring products and marketing programs to suit the tastes of specific
individuals and locations
It includes local marketing and individual marketing
Local marketing involves tailoring products and services to the needs and wants of local
customers (customers in different cities may require different services and attention)
LM can drive up marketing costs and reduce economies of scale
A brand’s overall image might be diluted if the product message vary greatly in different
Helps the firm to market effectively in the face of pronounced regional and local differences
in demographics and lifestyles
Helps the company to meet the needs of first line customers (trade)
Individual marketing
Also known as mass customization/ markets of one/one to one marketing
Involves customising products and marketing strategies to suit specific needs of the individual
Dell manufactures custom-configured products
Q1. Identify companies in Zimbabwe that pursue this strategy and discuss whether the strategy
enables such companies to command a market leadership position.
Q2. Explain how companies identify attractive market segments and choose a target marketing
Product Positioning
Refers to the way consumers perceive a product in terms of its characteristics relative to
It has to do with competitive differentiation
It involves implanting the brand’s unique image, benefits and differentiation in the minds of
Positioning methods
Attribute positioning e.g Benson and hedges position their cigarettes in terms of lightness and taste
Benefit positioning – emphasizes unique benefits consumers get from using a product .eg Gillett
blades promise an even closer shave
User/application positioning- position in terms of product use e.g Grac’a wine position wine as a
wine to be enjoyed at all kinds of occasions
User positioning – position products with users in mind, e.g thrill seekers, fun seekers, status seekers
Competitor positioning – against competitor offerings, Kana usina drosky hauna chigayo, car rental
USA “wioe are number two”
Quality/price positioning – affordability, exceptional quality through high price, unbeatable prices.
Payless at payless.
Product Mix
Refer to all the products which the enterprise offers to its target markets in order to satisfy
their needs
It is also known as the product offering/ product portfolio
Includes all the product ranges, product items and product lines
Anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption that
might satisfy a want or need
A product can also be known as a service
A service is any activity or benefit that one party can offer to another that is essentially
intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything
Levels of product
Formal product
Refers to a physical object or service offered to the market place e.g a television set, a motor
car, educational programme.
All formal products are characterised by certain technical attributes, material composition,
level, packaging, trade marks
Core product
Refers to the actual essential benefit or need satisfaction that consumer get from using a
A mother buys a detergent not because of its chemical composition or other attributes but she
buys hygiene and praise from friends.
Similarly a lady who buys Revlon products is actually buying beauty
Augmented product
Includes all the benefits that consumers receive experience in perceiving, utilising , obtaining
and applying the formal product
All after sale services such as packaging, customer advice, delivery , warehousing and other
extras that converts a formal product into an augmented product
Warranties – guarantee, a written assurance that some product or service will be provided or
meet certain services
Expected product
What a product is capable of satisfying in the future
Capable of modification
Product and Service classifications
Products can be classified broadly into consumer products and industrial products
Consumer products
Refer to products or services bought by final consumers for personal usage
Can be classified as convenience, shopping, speciality and unsought goods
Classification of consumer products and their marketing considerations
Customer buying
Frequent, little
shopping effort,
low customer
Less frequent
purchase, much
planning and
shopping effort,
lot of comparison
on price, brands,
quality, style
Strong brand
special purchase
effort, little
comparison of
brands, low price
Little product
knowledge, little
or negative
Low price
wide spread
Mass promotion
by the producer
High price
distribution in
fewer outlets
High price
Advertising and
personal selling
by both producer
and retailers
Aggressive ads,
personal selling
Examples of convenience
Shopping products
Major appliances
Specialty products
Luxury goods
Unsought goods
Life assurance, red cross,
Blood donations
Industrial products
Products which are purchased for further processing or use by organisations to produce other
Distinction between consumer products and industrial products is on the purpose for which
the product is bought
New product Development strategies
To show the meaning of a new product
To identify different sources of new product ideas
To explain why firms introduce new products
To explain the new product development process through 8 stages
To explain challenges faced companies when developing new products
What is a new product?
A new product refers to:
A product that is original which represents a complete innovation (new to the world)
Product improvements
Product line extensions
A product that is new to the company e.g acquisitions of a company or product
A product that is new to the market
Examples of new products developed over the past 40 years
Soft ware products
Sources of new product ideas
According to Gustav and Larson (1950) the following constitute sources of new product ideas
Internal sources
Research and development programmes
External sources
 Competitors e.g reverse engineering
 Customers
 Suppliers
 Distributors
Why firms introduce new products?
Developing new products is a part of the firm’s marketing strategy to achieve the following:
Firms introduce new products in order to increase market share
To enhance the firm’s competitive edge
Firms may introduce new product as a response to customer demands, preferences and needs
Firms introduce new products as part of the firm’s innovation strategy to remain pioneering in
the industry
Why new products fail?
Market size having been over estimated
Failure to incorporate customer needs during the design state
Delay in time to market
Improper product positioning
Wrong prescription and manipulation of marketing variables (mix) e.g high price, too low
price, inappropriate promotional strategies
The new product development process
There are several stages that firms follow in the process of coming up with new products. The
following are common stages
Idea generation
This involves generating ideas for the development of new products
Brainstorming of ideas is done in tying to gather as many ideas as possible
Method and madness normally allow companies to generate as many ideas as possible
Firms get ideas for new products from both the internal and external sources
Employee empowerment normally encourages innovation and creativity
Bootlegging – working on projects of personal interest
Idea screening
Involves dropping unprofitable ideas and adopting those that are worthwhile
Technical feasibility is considered when screening ideas
On generating ideas, a firm may have over a thousand ideas and these have to screened
Firms normally establish a new product development steering committee and the committee
can be mandated to evaluate the ideas generated
For ideas to be adopted they have to be consistent with company resources and objectives
Concept development and testing
Attractive ideas that survive the screening process have to be developed into a product
A product concept is a detailed version of the product idea which is normally expressed in
consumer terms
A low fuel consumption car appealing to the low income people
A four wheel drive land rover suitable for mountainous terrains
Groups of consumers will then be invited and asked about what they think about a prospective
product. The concepts are presented to the consumers either symbolically or physically.
Consumers can be shown the pictures of the proposed cars, the size, colour, and make.
Consumers are expected to give their inputs on what they think is good on that product. It is
important for a number of concepts to be tested so that consumers have wide choice.
Marketing strategy development
After concept development comes marketing strategy development.
This stage consists of 3 parts namely
(1) description of the market – e.g professionals, high income individuals, large families e.t.c
]\(2) The planned positioning e.g economical to operate, fun to drive.
(3) The projected sales e.g Toyota is expected to sell 2000 units of Fortuna in the first quarter
of 2011of which US$500 million can be realised. In the second year Toyota is expected to sell
200 000 of Fortuna CARS and a profit of US$50 million is expected to be generated.
Other strategies can relate to distribution, promotional strategies e.g heavy advertising budget for the
Business analysis
This involves a review of sales, expected costs (cost of production, costs, storage costs,
distribution costs, promotional costs, cost of labour e.t.c, profit projections
Review of sales history of like products of the company is also made
Forecasting of sales, profits and cost projections
Opportunity and risk assessment
Assessing the general expected attractiveness of the product on the market is also done at this
Product development
Here a product concept is translated into a prototype
A physical product is produced
Actual engineering takes place where attributes spelled out during morphological analysis are
Test marketing
Product/ service is exposed to a carefully chosen sample/population before its full scale launch
Unit 4: Consumer Behaviour (CB)
Why study the field of CB?
Determinants of demand
Buyer roles
Decision making process
Adoption process
Stages in the adoption process
Q. Unki mines wants to segment its market in order to achieve maximum efficiency and effectiveness
in creating and delivering value to its customers. To achieve this it has to segment its organisational
customers. State and outline the variables that Unki has to employ in segmenting its platinum market.
Q. There external and internal variables that affect consumer buyer behaviour. State and outline 2
variables in each category.
Q. The world has become a global village, discuss four major challenges of global marketing.
Demographic, purchasing characteristics, purchasing approaches, situational factors, personal
Q. Petrotrade Zimbabwe is in the distribution of petroleum products. Discuss the factors that affect its
distribution decisions.
Q, Discuss the industrial decision making process
Q. CBZ bank pursues micro marketing strategy in its banking products. Using examples, discuss
the pros and cons of this strategy
Q. SeedCo, a seed manufacturing company in Zimbabwe wishes to segment its market into 5 sub
markets. (1). Discuss how geographic segmentation variable will facilitate the segmentation process.
(2). What are some of the weaknesses of this multiple segmentation approach.?