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Transcript
Introduction to A & P
Anatomy & Physiology
Chapter 1
1
Anatomy and Physiology
• Anatomy – study of ____________
(Greek – “a cutting up”)
• Physiology – study of ____________
(Greek – “relationship to nature”)
“Structure dictates ______________.”
2
Levels of Organization
•____________________– electrons, protons, and neutrons
• ______________ – hydrogen atom, lithium atom, etc.
• __________ – water molecule, glucose molecule, etc.
• ________________ – protein molecule, DNA molecule, etc.
• ___________ – mitochondrion, Golgi apparatus, nucleus, etc.
• _________ – muscle cell, nerve cell, etc.
• _____________ – epithelia, connective, muscle and nerve
• __________ – skin, femur, heart, kidney, etc.
• ______________ – skeletal system, digestive system, etc.
• ____________ – the human
3
Levels of Organization
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Subatomic particles
Atom
Organ system
Molecule
Macromolecule
Organ
Organelle
Organism
Cell
Tissue
Organ Systems
Can you name the organ systems? Hint..11
5
Characteristics of Life (10)
•_____________ – change in position; motion
• _____________ – reaction to a change
• __________ – increase in body size; no change in shape
• ___________ – production of new organisms and new cells
• ______________ – obtaining oxygen; removing carbon
dioxide; releasing energy from foods
6
Characteristics of Life (Cont.)
• ___________ – breakdown of food substances into simpler
forms
• _______________ – passage of substances through membranes
and into body fluids
• ______________ – movement of substances in body fluids
• ________________ – changing of absorbed substances
into chemically different forms
• _________________ – removal of wastes produced by
metabolic reactions
7
Maintenance of Life
• Life depends on five (5) environmental factors:
•
•
•
•
•
8
Requirements of Organisms
• Water
- most abundant substance in body
- required for _____________________
- required for transport of substances
- regulates ________________________
• Food
- provides necessary _____________
- supplies energy
- supplies __________________
9
Requirements of Organisms
• Oxygen (gas)
- _____________ of air
- used to ______________from nutrients
• Heat
- form of _____________
- partly controls ____________________________
• Pressure
- application of ________________________
- ______________ pressure – important for breathing
- ______________ pressure – keeps blood flowing 10
Homeostasis*
* Maintaining of a stable _______________________
• Homeostatic Control Mechanisms – monitors aspects of the
_____________________and corrects as needed. Variations are
within limits. All homeostatic mechanisms have three components
in common:
• ______________ - provides information about the stimuli;
senses change in environment
• ______________- tells what a particular value should be
(called the set point); regulates set-point of variables
• ______________- organ that acts in response to changes;
elicits responses that change conditions in the internal
environment
11
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Control center
(set point)
Receptors
Stimulus
(Change occurs
in internal
environment.)
(Change is compared
to the set point.)
Effectors
(muscles or glands)
Response
12
(Change is corrected.)
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
• There are two (2) types:
• _____________ feedback mechanisms
• _____________feedback mechanisms
The ________________________________control
homeostasis in the body
13
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Negative feedback summary:
• Prevents sudden, severe changes in the body
• ____________the actions of the effectors
• Corrects the _______________
• Causes __________________________to occur, i.e. the ‘negative’
• Limits chaos in the body by creating _________________
• Most _______________ type of feedback loop
• Examples: _____________________________________________
14
Homeostatic Control Mechanisms
Positive feedback summary:
• Increases (accelerates) the actions of the body
• Produces more _______________ in the body
• Produces more chaos in the body
• There are only a few types necessary for our survival
• Positive feedback mechanisms are _________________
• Controls only ___________________that do not require
__________________________________
• Considered to be the ______________________ loop
• Examples: _____________________________________
15
Organization
of the Human Body
AXIAL PORTION
APPENCICULAR PORTION
MAJOR CAVITIES
CRANIAL CAVITY
THORACIC CAVITY
VERTEBRAL CANAL
* Note that the diaphragm muscle separates the thoracic from abdominopelvic cavities.
ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY
ABDOMINAL CAVITY
PELVIC CAVITY
*
Note that the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, and ureters are behind the abdominopelvic cavity. 16
This is referred to as RETROPERITONEAL.
Organization
of the Human Body
• Body cavities
Cranial cavity
Cranial cavity
Vertebral canal
Vertebral canal
Thoracic cavity
Thoracic
cavity
Thoracic cavity
Abdominopelvic
cavity
Abdominopelvic
cavity
(b)
(a)
17
Cavities of the
Head
Fig. 1.10
Cranial cavity
Paranasal sinuses:
Paranasal sinuses:
Thoracic & Abdominal
Serous Membranes
•
_______________= a soft, thin, pliable layer of tissue that either:
a.
covers a vital (visceral organ) = _________________ MEMBRANE.
b.
lines a body cavity = ___________________ MEMBRANE.
• There is a space between a visceral and parietal membrane into which SEROUS fluid is
secreted for ________________________.
19
Thoracic & Abdominal
Serous Membranes
• There are specific names for the membranes around the heart, lungs, and
abdominal organs:
a. Serous Membranes of the LUNGS:
The membrane on the surface of the lung is called _______________.
The membrane that lines the cavity in which the lungs are located is
called ____________________.
The space between these two membranes is called the _____________,
and it is filled with serous fluid.
b. Serous Membranes of the HEART:
The membrane on the surface of the heart is called _______________
______________________
The membrane that lines the cavity in which the heart is located is
called _______________________.
The space between these two membranes is called the ______________
_______________, and it is filled with serous fluid.
20
Thoracic & Abdominal
Serous Membranes
c.
Serous Membranes of the ABDOMINAL ORGANS:
The membrane on the surface of the liver, stomach, etc. is called
_______________________________.
The membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called ___________
_______________________.
The space between these two membranes is called the _____________
________________, and it is filled with serous fluid.
21
Anatomical Terminology
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
A language used to describe the
_____________________; needed
for communication.
Anatomical Position –
22
Midline
Anatomical Terminology
Relative Positions
Superior = _________; Inferior = __________;
Anterior = _________; Posterior = _________;
Ventral = __________; Dorsal = ___________;
Medial = __________; Lateral = ___________;
Ipsilateral = ________; Contralateral = ________;
*Proximal/Distal – Only in the extremities.
Proximal = _____________; Distal = _____________;
Superficial / peripheral = __________; Deep = ____________.
24
Body Sections or Planes (3)
• ___________ – divides body into left and right portions
• ____________ – divides body into equal left and right
portions
• ____________________– divides body into superior and
inferior portions
• ___________________ – divides body into anterior and
posterior portions
25
Body Sections
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Median
(midsagittal)
plane
Parasagittal
plane
Transverse
(horizontal)
plane
A section along the
median plane
A section along a transverse
plane
A section along a frontal
plane
Frontal
(coronal)
plane
© McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Inc./Joe De Grandis, photographer
26
Abdominal Subdivisions (2)
• Regions ( )
(a)
• Quadrants ( )
(b)
27
Body Regions
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
(a)
(b)
28