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• ANATOMY – study of
the parts of the body
• PHYSIOLOGY –
function of the body
• ANATOMICAL
POSITION – standing
erect with face
forward, arms at the
side, palms forward
Anatomic Terminology – Position
and Direction
• ANTERIOR or
VENTRAL – front or
in front of
• POSTERIOR or
DORSAL – back or in
back of
Dorsal ↓
F
r
o
n
t
a
l
• CRANIAL – refers to
the head of the body
Tail end
• CAUDAL – means tail
end
• SUPERIOR – upper or
above something
• INFERIOR – lower or
below something
Superior
Inferior
• MEDIAL – toward the
middle
Lateral
←←Medial
• LATERAL – toward
the side of the body
• PROXIMAL – toward
the point of attachment
to the body or the
trunk of the body
• DISTAL – away from
the point of attachment
to the body
Proximal
Distal
• SUPERFICIAL
(EXTERNAL) – near the
surface or outside the
body
• DEEP (INTERNAL) –
inside the body
Body Planes and Sections
• PLANES – imaginary
anatomical dividing planes
• SECTION – cut made through
the body in the direction of a
certain plane
• SAGITTAL PLANE – divides
the body into right and left parts
• CORONAL (FRONTAL)
PLANE – vertical cut at right
angles to saggital plane, divides
the body into anterior and
posterior portions
• TRANSVERSE PLANE –
cross-section, a horizontal cut
that divides the body into upper
and lower parts
Cavities of the Body
•
•
•
•
•
DORSAL CAVITY – contains
brain and spinal cord – the brain is
in the CRANIAL CAVITY and the
spinal cord is in the SPINAL
CAVITY.
ANTERIOR or VENTRAL
CAVITY contains the THORACIC
and ABDOMINOPELVIC
CAVITIES
The thoracic cavity contains the
lungs and heart
ABDOMINAL CAVITY contains
stomach, intestines, liver,
gallbladder and pancreas
PELVIC CAVITY contains urinary
bladder and reproductive organs
Abdominopelvic Cavity Regions
R Hypochondriac
R Lumbar
R Inguinal
Epigastric
L Hypochondriac
Umbilical
L Lumbar
Hypogastric
L Inguinal
Tissues
•
•
•
•
•
TISSUES – cells grouped because
they are similar in shape, size,
structure, and function
EPITHELIAL TISSUE – protects
the body by covering internal and
external surfaces, and produces
secretions
CONNECTIVE TISSUE –
supports and connects organs and
tissue
MUSCLE TISSUE – has the ability
to contract and move the body
NERVOUS TISSUE – cells that
react to stimuli and conduct an
impulse
Tissue Continued
• ADIPOSE TISSUE – type of connective tissue
that stores fat cells
• LIGAMENTS – strong, flexible bands of
connective tissue that hold bones firmly together
at the joints
• TENDONS – white bands of connective tissue
attaching skeletal muscle to bone
• CARTILAGE – firm, flexible support of the
embryonic skeleton and part of the adult skeleton
Membranes
• MEMBRANES – formed
by putting two thin layers
of tissue together, cells
may secrete a fluid
• MUCOUS
MEMBRANES– lines
digestive, respiratory,
reproductive and urinary
systems – produces
mucous to lubricate and
protect the lining
SEROUS MEMBRANES – double-walled
membrane - produces a watery fluid, lines closed
body cavities
•
•
•
•
•
•
the outer part of the membrane that
lines the cavity is the PARIETAL
membrane
the part that covers the organs is
the VISCERAL membrane.
PLEURAL MEMBRANE – lines
thoracic or chest cavity and
protects the lungs
PERICARDIAL MEMBRANE –
lines the heart cavity and protects
the heart
PERITONEAL MEMBRANE –
lines the abdominal cavity and
protects abdominal organs
Organs and Systems
• ORGAN SYSTEM – a group of
organs which act together to
perform a specific, related
function
• Integumentary
• Skeletal
• Muscular
• Digestive
• Respiratory
• Circulatory
• Excretory
• Nervous
• Endocrine
• Reproductive