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Transcript
Summer 2005
C.22
ANATOMY – study of the parts of the body
PHYSIOLOGY – function of the body
ANATOMICAL POSITION – standing erect
with
face forward, arms at the side, palms
forward
Anatomic Terminology – Position and
Direction
! ANTERIOR or VENTRAL – front or in front of
! POSTERIOR or DORSAL – back or in back of
! CRANIAL – refers to the head of the body
! CAUDAL – means tail end
! SUPERIOR – upper or above something
! INFERIOR – lower or below something
! MEDIAL – toward the middle
! LATERAL – toward the side of the body
! PROXIMAL – toward the point of attachment to
the body or the trunk of the body
! DISTAL – away from the point of attachment to
the body
! SUPERFICIAL (EXTERNAL) – near the
surface
or outside the body
! DEEP (INTERNAL) – inside the body
Body Planes and Sections
! PLANES – imaginary anatomical dividing
planes
! SECTION – cut made through the body in the
direction of a certain plane
! SAGITTAL PLANE – divides the body into right
and left parts
! CORONAL (FRONTAL) PLANE – vertical cut
at
right angles to saggital plane, divides the body
into anterior and posterior portions
! TRANSVERSE PLANE – cross-section, a
horizontal cut that divides the body into upper
and lower parts
Cavities of the Body
! DORSAL CAVITY – contains brain and spinal
cord – the brain is in the CRANIAL CAVITY and
the spinal cord is in the SPINAL CAVITY.
! ANTERIOR or VENTRAL CAVITY contains the
THORACIC and ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITIES
! The thoracic cavity contains the lungs and
heart
! ABDOMINAL CAVITY contains stomach,
intestines, liver, gallbladder and pancreas
! PELVIC CAVITY contains urinary bladder and
reproductive organs