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Honors Biology – Chapter 1 and 2: The Science of Biology
By the end of the unit, students should able to complete these “Learning Objectives” and explain all terms.
Essential Question A. How can students succeed in Honors Biology?
Explain class expectations
Explain and use the Cornell note-taking strategy
Demonstrate an ability to meet deadlines by turning in assignments on time.
Demonstrate an ability to use appropriate grammar and spelling and to make corrections as necessary.
Essential Question B. What is the science of biology, and how does science work?
Define biology and at least three ways that human’s understanding of biology has benefited your life
Explain how scientific investigations involves developing hypotheses/theories that generate testable predictions.
Explain how hypotheses and theories can be modified over time as new data are collected.
Explain the difference between a hypothesis and a theory.
Explain how scientists cite their sources when referring to the ideas or findings of others
Explain how conclusions must be based on evidence and consistent with established knowledge.
Explain the following: collaboration, interpretation, presentation, tentative results
Explain how human values affect science.
Explain how the peer-review process is used by scientists (including all steps involved, as covered in class).
Explain how a peer-reviewed article differs from one that is not peer-reviewed (e.g. an article in a newspaper)
Explain the basic results of the PLoS1 and NY Times articles
Be familiar with all components of and how to write an entire formal lab report (see rubric!)
o Be able to define, explain, and appropriately use the following terms: reliability, validity, manipulated
variable, controlled variable, responding variable, control group, trials/replicates
17. Record, graph, and analyze experimental data from an experiment to form conclusions
18. Describe patterns observed in data, and whether any observed trends are positive or weak
19. Develop/discuss alternative explanations for patterns in data; decide which most likely fits the data/evidence.
Essential Question C. What does it mean to be “alive”?
20. Explain the characteristics of life in depth, giving examples of living and non-living things. Know that living things:
a. Are made up of units called cells;
f. Respond to their environment
b. Reproduce
g. Maintain a stable internal environment
c. Are based on universal genetic code
h. Taken as a group, change over time
d. Grow and develop
e. Use materials & energy, produce waste
21. Explain the research conducted by Redi, Spallanzani, Pasteur, and Needham
22. Use evidence to explain that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
23. Explain the difference between positive and negative feedback
Essential Question D. What basic chemistry do I need to understand biology?
Compare and contrast the terms element and compound; compare and contrast the terms atom and molecule
Explain the following terms: nucleus, electron, neutron, protons, macromolecule
Explain the pH scale, comparing and contrasting the terms acid and base
Explain the phrase, “organic carbon compounds are the building blocks of life”
Explain the term lipids and be able to explain at least three functions of lipids in living organisms
Explain the term carbohydrates and be able to explain at least 3 functions of carbohydrates in living organisms
a. Compare and contrast the structure and function of glucose, glycogen and starch
30. Compare and contrast energy stored in a lipid molecule compared to a carbohydrate molecule.
31. Explain the term proteins and be able to explain at least three function of proteins in living organisms
a. Explain the term “amino acids” and how they build proteins.
b. Compare and contrast the primary, secondary, and tertiary structures of proteins.
c. List at least three functions of proteins in living organisms
d. Explain how enzymes actually work, using the “lock and key” analogy; be able to explain “denatured”
e. Define the following terms: chemical reaction, reactant, product, catalyst
f. Explain how enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of some molecules (e.g. food) and the synthesis of
other molecules (e.g. proteins, DNA)