Download Chapter One

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

First impression (psychology) wikipedia, lookup

Attachment theory wikipedia, lookup

Romantic comedy wikipedia, lookup

Internet relationship wikipedia, lookup

Social perception wikipedia, lookup

James M. Honeycutt wikipedia, lookup

Polyamory wikipedia, lookup

Attachment measures wikipedia, lookup

Relationship counseling wikipedia, lookup

Attachment in children wikipedia, lookup

History of attachment theory wikipedia, lookup

Attachment in adults wikipedia, lookup

Group cohesiveness wikipedia, lookup

Friendship wikipedia, lookup

Human bonding wikipedia, lookup

Caring in intimate relationships wikipedia, lookup

Same-sex intimacy wikipedia, lookup

Romance (love) wikipedia, lookup

Intimate relationship wikipedia, lookup

Interpersonal relationship wikipedia, lookup

Interpersonal attraction wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Social Psychology
David Myers
10e
Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Companies
Chapter Eleven
• Attraction and Intimacy: Liking and Loving
Others
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Proximity
– Geographical nearness; functional distance
– Interaction
• Availability
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Anticipation of Interaction
– Mere exposure
• Tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more or rated
more positively after the rater has been repeatedly
exposed to them
– Exposure without awareness leads to liking
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Physical Attractiveness
– Attractiveness and dating
• Looks are a predictor of how often one dates
• Looks influence voting
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Physical Attractiveness
– The Matching phenomenon
• Tendency for men and women to choose as partners
those who are a “good match” in attractiveness and
other traits
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
 Physical Attractiveness
 Physical-attractiveness stereotype
 Presumption that physically attractive people possess
other socially desirable traits as well
 First impressions
 Is the “Beautiful is Good” stereotype accurate?
 Attractive people are valued and favored, and so many develop
more social self-confidence
• Self-fulfilling prophecy
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Physical Attractiveness
– Who is attractive?
• Whatever people of any given place and time find
attractive
– Perfect average
– Symmetry
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Physical Attractiveness
– Evolution and attraction
• Assumption that beauty signals biologically important
information
– Health
– Youth
– Fertility
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Physical Attractiveness
– Social comparison
• Contrast effect
– Attractiveness of those we love
• We see likable people as attractive
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Similarity versus Complementarity
– Do birds of a feather flock together?
• Likeness begets liking
• Dissimilarity breeds dislike
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Similarity versus Complementarity
– Do opposites attract?
• Complementarity
– Popularly supposed tendency, in a relationship between two
people, for each to complete what is missing in the other
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Liking Those Who Like Us
– Attribution
• Ingratiation
– Use of strategies, such as flattery , by which people seek to
gain another’s favor
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Liking Those Who Like Us
– Attribution
• Self-esteem and attraction
– How we feel about ourselves determines how we feel about
our relationships
What Leads to Friendship and
Attraction?
• Relationship Rewards
– Reward theory of attraction
• Theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding
to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
What Is Love?
• Passionate Love
– Emotional, exciting, and
intense
• Expressed physically
Figure 11.7
What Is Love?
• Passionate Love
– Theory of passionate love
• Two-factor theory of emotion
– Suggests that in a romantic context, arousal from any source,
even painful experiences, can be steered into passion
What Is Love?
• Passionate Love
– Variations in love:
culture and gender
• Marriages for love versus
arranged marriages
Figure 11.9
What Is Love?
• Companionate Love
– Affection we feel for
those with whom our
lives are deeply
intertwined
• Occurs after passionate
love fades
Figure 11.7
What Enables Close Relationships?
• Attachment
– Our need to belong is adaptive
– Parents and children
– Friends
– Spouses or lovers
What Enables Close Relationships?
• Attachment
– Attachment styles
• Secure attachment
– Rooted in trust and marked by intimacy
• Preoccupied attachment
– Marked by a sense of one’s own unworthiness and anxiety,
ambivalence, and possessiveness
What Enables Close Relationships?
• Attachment
– Attachment styles
• Dismissive attachment
– Avoidant relationship style marked by distrust of others
• Fearful attachment
– Avoidant relationship style marked by fear of rejection
What Enables Close Relationships?
• Equity
– Condition in which the outcomes people receive
from a relationship are proportional to what they
contribute to it
• Long-term equity
– As people observe their partners being self-giving, their sense
of trust grows
• Perceived equity and satisfaction
What Enables Close Relationships?
• Self-Disclosure
– Revealing intimate
aspects of oneself to
others
• Disclosure reciprocity
– Tendency for one
person’s intimacy or
self-disclosure to match
that of a conversational
partner
Figure 11.11
How Do Relationships End?
• Divorce
– Rates varied widely by country
– Individualistic cultures have more divorce than do
communal cultures
How Do Relationships End?
• Detachment Process
– Alternatives to exiting a relationship
• Loyalty
– Waiting for conditions to improve
• Neglect
– Ignore the partner and allow the relationship to deteriorate
• Voice concerns
– Take active steps to improve relationship