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February 13th/14th
• Happy Valentine’s Day
• History of Valentine’s Day???
• Look at Imperialism
• Map Activity; Primary Document Activity
• Video
Warm Up:
• Name two advantages of communism
• Name two disadvantages of communism
• Name two advantages of capitalism
• Name two disadvantages of capitalism
History of Valentine’s Day
The Age of Imperialism
Chapter 27
What is imperialism?
• The seizure (takeover) of a
country or territory by a
stronger country
What is Imperialism?
• Why do Europeans do this?
• Industrialization sparks the
need for:
• Land perfect for establishing
trading and military posts
• Natural resources and raw
• New markets for products
Remember this?
Well, they need this
• Europeans want to control
all aspects of their colonies
• Politics
• Society
• Economy
• Culture and customs
Methods of Management
• Direct Control
• Paternalism – Europeans
provide for local people but
grant no rights
• Assimilation – adaptation of
local people to ruling culture
• Indirect Control
• Limited self-rule for local
• Legislative body includes
colonial & local officials
Africa Before European Domination
• Divided into hundreds of ethnic groups
• Followed traditional beliefs, Islam or
• Nations ranged from large empires to
independent villages
• Africans controlled their own trade
• Europeans only had contact on African
Nations Compete
• Europeans wanted more land
• Contained large amounts of
gold, diamonds, and rubber
• Africa was a mystery to many
• Europeans who penetrated
Africa were:
• Explorers – seeking wealth and
• Missionaries – trying to convert
Africans to Christianity
• Humanitarians – “westernize”
the “savages”
How/Why Did It Begin?
• This is Belgium
This is Congo (Africa)
How/Why Did It begin?
• Congo River Valley Chiefs signed
treaties that gave King Leopold II
of Belgium personal control of
these lands
• Leopold claimed he planned on
ending the slave trade there
• He licensed companies that
brutally exploited Africans
• The Belgian Congo is 80 times
larger than Belgium
• This alarms other European
countries, who start claiming
lands of their own all over Africa
Forces Driving Imperialism
• Belief in European superiority
• Racism
• Social Darwinism
• Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa
• European technological superiority
• Europeans had means to control
• New medicines prevent diseases
• David Livingston Explores Southern Africa
• Read and look at map
• Answer questions directly after
The Division of Africa
• The Berlin Conference
• Europeans leaders divide Africa
• No African ruler invited
• Little or no thought about the
complex differences in ethnic groups
• By 1914 – Only independent nations
• Liberia
• Ethiopia
According to this
cartoon, which
European countries were
fighting for a position in
How did the Berlin
Conference lead to the
situation shown in the
South Africa
• Three Groups Clash for Power
• Africans
• Zulu nation, led by Shaka, fought the British
• Zulu nation lost to British in 1887
• Boers
• Dutch settlers that had controlled South Africa since the mid
• Also known as Afrikaners
• British
• Gained control of South Africa after the Berlin Conference
Boer War
• Fought between the Boers and the British
• Many Africans fought with the Boers
• First example of “total war”
• British win in 1910
• Established the Union of South Africa (British Rule)
Effects of
in Africa
British Imperialism in India
• British Expand Control over India
• East India Company
• Controls India thru economic imperialism
• Company uses an army including Indian soldiers known as
• India was seen as the most important colony
• Due to its production of raw materials
• Known as the “Jewel in the Crown”
Effects of British Rule
• Impact of Colonialism
Railroads move cash crops and goods faster
British control political and economic power
Cash crops resulted in loss of self-sufficiency and caused famine
Indian culture is disrupted due to racism and missionaries
Britain sought to “modernize” India
The Sepoy Rebellion
• Indians Rebel
• Sepoys refuse to use cartridges due to religious
• They had to bite them open – greased with pork fat
• Considered unclean by Muslims
• Many sepoys were jailed, others rebelled
• British put down the rebellion
• Results
• Britain takes direct control of India
• Increased distrust between Indians and British
Imperialism Documents
• Read the documents-analyze them
• Then in complete sentences…answer the questions 
Guns, Germs, Steel Video
• Start today….finish tomorrow