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The Reformation and CounterReformation
"Europe's Search for Stability"
Elisabeth Carter
Andrea Chattler
Marielle Hanley
Reformation/ Protestant Reformation
October 31, 1517: Martin Luther posted the 95 Theses on the door of
the Casle Church in Wittenberg and that heralded the start of the
June-July 1519: At the Disputation at Leipzig, Andreas von Carlstadt
and Luther debated with John Eck. Eck forced Luther to admit that he
agreed with Hus.
Jan 27-May 25, 1521: Many Imperial discussions (Diets) were held in
Worms, but the most famous Diet of Worms was the one Martin Luther
attended in 1521.
May 25, 1521: The Edict of Worms, signed by Emperor Charles V
declared Martin Luther a heretic and placed him under an imperial ban.
It also specified that all Luther's books were to be burned.
Reformation Time Line (Continued)
January 29, 1523: Ulrich Zwingli presented his 67 Theses at the
Zurich Disputation.
June 1524 -1525: The Peasant's Revolt began peacefully; by 1525,
the protests turned violent and more than 40 German monasteries and
castles were burnt.
1526: William Tyndale published an English language New
Testament in Worms.
June 25, 1530: The Augsburg Confession; Emperor Karl V called the
Parliament together in Augsburg to resolved the political, religious
and social problems created by the Reformation.
Reformation Time Line (Continued)
1530–1531: The Schmalkaldic League was formed as a defensive
alliance against the empire. In a meeting set up by princes Philip of
Hesse and John of Saxony, eight princes and eleven cities met and
adopted the Augsburg Confession.
1536: Menno Simons, a former Priest, formed the Mennonites; this
group has influenced Baptists, Amish, Hutterites and Quakers.
April 1539: The Treaty of Frankfurt was an attempt to bring peace
between the Schmalkaldic League and Emperor Charles V. It failed to
prevent future wars between Catholics and Lutherans.
1549: "Consensus Tigurinius"
Reformation Time Line (Continued)
September 25, 1555: The Peace of Augsburg was an edict of
toleration for Lutheranism; each individual Prince could choose the
religion for his area.
1563: The Heidelberg Catechism
August 24, 1572: St Bartholomew's Day massacre; 10,000 Huguenots
were killed.
1618-1648: The Thirty Years War; Germany was invaded by the
imperial armies of Austria and then by the Swedish army who came
to help the Protestants.
October 24, 1648: The Peace of Westphalia; the start of the separation
of church and state. Calvinists were added to the list of tolerated
religions, which brought increased stability.
Counter-Reformation/ Catholic
Reformation Timeline
1534: Paul III becomes Pope & Loyola founds the Jesuits
1545–1563: Council of Trent; met sardonically to reform parts of the
Church. Popes: Paul III, Julius III, and Pius IV
1563: Spanish Inquisition; simony and indulgences uprooted,
standardized worship, reorganized church law, new educational
requirements for priests, reformed orders, scrutinized clergy
1580: Restoration of the Roman Catholic Church under Queen Mary
1618-1648: Thirty Year's War.
• The posting of the Ninety-Five Theses on Wittenburg Church
• Diet of Worms, 1521 Charles V outlaws Luther
• Peace of Westphalia- May 15, 1648
• Council of Trent
Lutheranism: Justification by Faith,
Anglicanism: King Henry VIII's
only valid source of doctrine is bible,
church used to divorce Catherine and
marry Anne Boleyn
Calvinism: predestination, banned card
Anabaptism: radicals, had to be
playing, gambling, dancing, swearing,
prayer was nourishment for faith,
baptized and undergo a conversion
experience to be a "real" christian
Martin Luther
• Ninety-Five Theses: attacked the papal abuses and the sale of
indulgences by church officials
• Believed and taught that salvation is a gift of God's grace,
received by faith and trust in God's promise to forgive sins for the
sake of Christ's death on the cross
• Exiled after Diet of Worms
• Lutheranism
• First person to translate The New Testament in the commonlyspoken dialect of the German people; published in 1522
Martin Luther vs Pope Leo X rap
Religious (Continued)
William Tyndale
• Captain of the Army of Reformers, and was their spiritual leader
• First man to ever print the New Testament in the English language
• Held and published views which were considered heretical, first by
the Catholic Church, and later by the Church of England
• Tried for heresy and treason in a ridiculously unfair trial, and
convicted; he was then strangled and burnt at the stake in the prison
yard, Oct. 6, 1536
Religious (Continued)
Ulrich Zwingli
• Appointed "People's Priest" in 1519
• Zwinglian Protestantism, as well as its spiritual inheritors (the
majority of Protestant churches), overwhelmingly stressed the
divine nature of Christ
• Zwingli's theology and morality were based on a single principle: if
the Old or New Testament did not say something explicitly and
literally, then no Christian should believe or practice it
Religious (Continued)
John Calvin
• Calvinism
• Institutes of the Christian Religion was published in 1536
• Geneva adopted religious reform in May 1536
• Placed great importance on sermons-logical and learned
• Ecclesiastical Ordinances: no bishops and all ministers were
equal; they had to preach, administer the sacraments and
look after the spiritual welfare of the people
Religious (Continued)
St. Ignatius Loyola
• Wrote his famous "Spiritual Exercises" after seeing visions from God and
other Catholic Saints
• Founded the Society of Jesus; vowed to travel to Jerusalem and preach
the Gospel to the Muslims
• The Jesuits' Goals:
o renewal of the Roman Catholic Church through extensive
education and the encouragement of frequent use of the
o extensive missionary work in non-Christian countries
o a suitable response to the growing challenge of Protestantism
• Calvin and Zwingli encouraged iconoclastic movement
o iconoclasm: the deliberate destruction within a culture of
the culture's own religious icons and other symbols or
monuments, usually for religious or political motives
• Due to the idea that all of life can bring glory to God,
Protestants depicted all areas of life in their art.
• Protestant artists focused on more secular subjects:
landscapes, history painting, portraits, and still life.
• As a result of the Council of Trent, art in Southern Europe was
regulated so as to maintain strictly religious content
• Catholics only painted religious symbols and depictions
Art Cont.
Cranach the Elder's Altarpiece
at Wittenburg. An early Protestant
work depicting leading Reformers
as Apostles at the Last Supper
Peter Bruegel's Peasant Wedding Feast
Art Cont.
The Last Judgment fresco in the
Sistine Chapel by Michelangelo (1534-41)
came under persistent attack in the
Counter-Reformation for, among other things,
nudity, not showing Christ seated or bearded,
and including the pagan figure of Charon.
Scipione Pulzone's Lamentation,
a typical Counter-Reformation work
Printing Press
• The establishment of the printing press played a key role in
mobilizing the Reformation.
• Martin Luther recognized the power of printing to mobilize the
grass roots support for Reformation.
• Luther used the printing press to mass produce Scriptures and
Reformation publications.
• The printing press was later used in the Counter-Reformation as a
means of spreading their beliefs and mass publication.
• Shift from Mediterranean to Atlantic
• money markets, sophistication of business, division of West and
East agriculture, economically dominant cities, rural industry,
population shift, silver
• Calvinism helped promote the development of capitalism in
• Some responded to the "faith not works" challenge of the
Protestants by finding a new vocation in social justice.
• Vincent de Paul and Francis de Sales were intensely
devoted to caring for the poor, founding orders with that
mission at a time when an emerging capitalist economy was
adding to the social wreckage.
• The capitalist society was not beneficial to all.
• It was a time of increasing poverty and homelessness in the face of
growing wealth and power for the elite.
• religion was not a matter of personal preference or opinion,
it was the very basis of society.
• Religious uniformity was essential for social stability.
• The Peasants War, which began in 1524, is a response to
Luther's urgings of democratic reform and a reaction to an
unbalanced social system.
• As spouses and mothers, women brought the ideas of the
Reformation to the families of the aristocracy and the
common people.
• Women were allowed to choose their paths: mystical
devotion or social service
• Prostitution became popular because it was a declaration of
a woman's independence
• Witch-hunting
Work Cited