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Transcript
Training Manual on Wildlife Diseases and Surveillance
c) Information management
The third component of pathogen surveillance is management of all of the information
produced from the activities of Detection and Diagnosis. Information must be managed so that:
1) all the surveillance data are incorporated,
2) surveillance data can reliably be searched, retrieved and analysed,
3) surveillance data can be mapped, and
4) surveillance data are securely archived and preserved over time.
Who can do this work? Creation, maintenance and on-going development of a
computerized data management system for pathogen surveillance requires a small group of
people expert in information technology and, specifically, database design. They must work
closely with the people who create the information (detection and diagnosis) and the people
who will use the information (analysis and communication) so that the information
management system serves the total needs of the surveillance system. Several wildlife pathogen
surveillance information management systems have been developed around the world and
countries which do not already have such a system may find it helpful to seek assistance from
the developers of these databases currently in use.
Information management is critically important to pathogen surveillance. It requires
dedicated full-time personnel and continuous modification as the standards and tools of
computing and data management change over time. The information management system
usually can be designed to serve the needs both of general surveillance and also of targeted
surveillance. Through the Internet, it now is feasible and affordable to create a central
information management system that can be used by all participants in the surveillance
programme in all parts of a country.
d) Analysis of Data and Communication of Results
The fourth component of pathogen surveillance is analysis of the data produced by
detection and diagnosis, and communication of those results to those who need this information.
Who can do this work? Analysis and interpretation of wildlife pathogen surveillance data
requires the combined expertise of wildlife biologists, wildlife pathogen and disease specialists,
epidemiologists and communications specialists. Each of these areas of expertise is required to
correctly interpret the results of wildlife pathogen surveillance and to transmit the information
to others. Thus, the surveillance programme must include a small team of people expert in these
fields and who understand the purpose of the surveillance programme.
Who needs wildlife pathogen surveillance information? Information on wild animal
pathogens generally is required in four areas of public responsibility:
1. public health
2. domestic animal Health
3. wildlife conservation and management
4. environmental management.
Analysis of surveillance data must serve all four of these areas, and the concerns and
interests of each often are very different. For example, public health agencies will want to know
about zoonotic diseases and food safety. Veterinary Services will be concerned about pathogens
shared with domestic animals and potential implications for food production, agricultural
economics and international trade. Wildlife conservation agencies will be concerned about
potential effects on wild animal populations and potential conflicts between wild animal
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