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Training Manual on Wildlife Diseases and Surveillance
report occurrences of certain human and animal pathogens when they occur in any species. All
also have agreed that international reporting of pathogens in animals, including wild animals,
will be done through the OIE, system.
Thus, each country needs a national wildlife disease programme to meet its obligations
for international reporting of diseases, as well as to reduce costs and harm to its own society.
2. Components of a national wildlife disease programme
National wildlife disease programmes must be programmes coordinating several
different components and activities, each of which is essential to the programme as a whole.
Four essential components of such national programmes are these:
a) Prevention of new issues associated with wild animal pathogens
It is far better to prevent a problem associated with wild animal pathogens than to
manage the problem afterward. Preventive programmes will have several components. One is
effective border control to prevent import and export of pathogens in wildlife. Effective border
controls require that global health and disease issues be monitored and reported internationally
so that countries are aware of current health risks associated with importations of wild animals.
As noted earlier, health risk assessment for all movements (translocations) of wild animals is a
critically important component of preventive programmes. Wildlife pathogens already present
in a country also may be the source of new health issues. Disease emergence often is associated
with changes in land use, for example. Thus, another component of prevention of new health
issues associated with wild animal pathogens is assessment of emerging disease risks in a wide
range of national social and economic programmes.