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Training Manual on Wildlife Diseases and Surveillance
2. Forms of pathogen and disease surveillance
The many aspects of animal health surveillance are described in Chapter 1.4 of the OIE’s
Terrestrial Animal Health Code. However, some aspects of pathogen and disease surveillance in
wild animals require special attention. In wild animal populations, probability-based sampling
methods (Terrestrial Animal Health Code, Chapter 1.4.4) seldom can be used because of practical
problems of access to wild animals and lack of accurate information about population sizes and
structures. Thus, most samples in wildlife pathogen surveillance will be non-random and will be
based on what is possible to achieve given the difficulties of securing samples from wild
populations (often called ‘convenience sampling’). This will affect the analytical approaches that
can be applied to the surveillance data and the nature of the conclusions that can be drawn from
the data. Nonetheless, such surveillance remains a powerful and essential tool in national and
international management of animal and human health, and should be carried out in every
There are two quite different forms of pathogen surveillance. One is general or scanning
surveillance (also sometimes called ‘passive’ surveillance, although there is nothing ‘passive’
about such surveillance programmes) and targeted surveillance focused on a particular
pathogen in specified wild animal populations (sometimes also called ‘active’ surveillance). Both
forms of pathogen surveillance are required in a national wildlife health programme.
3. General (scanning) surveillance for pathogens in wild animals
General or ‘scanning’ wildlife pathogen surveillance is the most important component of
a national wildlife health programme. It is not possible to have a complete national animal
health programme unless a country has a programme of general wildlife pathogen surveillance.
General surveillance is the only way a country can know what pathogens exist in its wildlife, and
it is the only available form of national vigilance for emerging diseases associated with wild
animal pathogens.