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Birla vishvakarma mahavidhyalaya Electrical Power System Supply Systems Prepared by: Savdas Ambaliya(130070109001) Amritkumar ojha(130070109002) Payal Bhadresa(130070109003) Parth Bhalodiya(130070109004) Guided by: Pro.Ajay Patel Electrical Supply system The conveyance of electric power from a power station to consumers’ premises is known as electric supply system. Electric supply system consist of three principle components: 1)Power station 2)Transmission lines 3)Distribution system The electric supply system can be broadly classified into: 1)DC or AC system 2)Overhead or underground system Typical AC power supply scheme Different blocks of typical ac power supply scheme are as per following:: 1)Generating Station: In generating station power is produced by three phase alternators operating in parallel. the usual generation voltage is 11 kV. For economy in the transmission of electric power, the generation voltage is stepped up to 132 kV or more at generating station with the help of three phase transformer. 2)Primary transmission: The electric power at 132 kV is transmitted by 3-phase,3 wire overhead system to the out skirts of the city. 3)Secondary transmission: At the receiving station the voltage is reduced to 33kV by step down transformer. 4)Primary distribution: At the substation voltage is reduced 33kV to 11kV. The 11kV line run along important road sides to city. This forms the primary distribution. 5)Secondary distribution: The electric power form primary distribution line is delivered to distribution substation. The substation is located near the consumers location and step down the voltage to 400V, 3-phase ,4-wire for secondary distribution. The voltage between any two phases is 400V and between any phase and neutral is 230V. Comparison of DC and AC transmission DC transmission • • • • • • • • Advantages: Requires only two conductors. There is no inductance, capacitance, phase difference and surge problem. Better voltage regulation. No skin effect. DC line requires less insulation. Less corona loss and reduced interference with communication circuit. The high voltage DC transmission is free from dielectric losses. No stability problems and synchronising difficulties. Disadvantages: • Electric power can not be generated at high DC voltage due to commutation problems. • DC voltage can not be stepped up. • The switches and circuit breakers have their own limitations. AC transmission Advantages: • The power can be generated at high voltages. • The maintenance of AC substation is easy and cheaper. • The AC voltage can be steeped up or stepped down by transformers. Disadvantages: • Requires more copper than DC. • Due to skin effect in the AC system the effective resistance of line is increased. • AC line has capacitance therefore there is continuous loss of power due to charging current even when the line is open. Advantages of high transmission voltage 1) Reduces volume of conductor material Let P= power transmitted in watt V= line voltage in volt COSØ= Power factor of the load l= Length of the line in meters R= Resistance per conductor in ohm ρ= Resistivity of conductor material a= Area of cross-section of conductor Volume of the conductor material From the equation it is concluded that the greater the transmission voltage, lesser is the conductor material required 2) Increases transmission efficiency Transmission efficiency AS J,ρ and l are constant , therefore, transmission efficiency increases when the line voltage is increased. 3) Decreases percentage line drop AS J,ρ and l are constant therefore; percentage line drop decreases when the transmission voltage increases. Various system of power transmission 1) DC system DC two-wire • In the 2-wire dc system one is the outgoing or positive wire and the other is the return or negative wire. DC two-wire with mid-point earthed • In the 2-wire dc system with mid point earthed ; the maximum voltage between any conductor and earth is Vm so that maximum voltage between conductors is 2Vm. DC three-wire • In a 3 wire dc system there are two outer and a middle or neutral wire which is earthed at the generator end. • If load is balanced ; the current in neutral wire is zero. 2) Single-phase two-wire Single-phase two-wire Single-phase two-wire with mid-point earthed Single-phase three-wire 3) Two-phase AC system Two-phase four-wire • The four wires are taken from the ends of the two phase windings and the midpoints of the two windings are connected together . • This system can be considered as two independent single phase systems. Two-phase three-wire 4) Three-phase AC system Three-phase three-wire Three-phase four-wire • In this case forth for neutral wire is taken from the neutral point . The area of X-section of the neutral wire is generally one half that of the line conductor.