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• • • • “The pen is mightier than the sword” What does this mean? Where have we heard this before? Do you agree or disagree – why? What Was the Enlightenment? Intellectual movement in Europe during the 18th century that led to a new world view. New theories about society, government, philosophy, economics and religion New way to think about the world and one’s place in it According to the 18thcentury philosopher Immanuel Kant, the “motto” of the Enlightenment was… “Have courage to use your own intelligence!” THINK FOR YOURSELF!! Immanuel Kant Voltaire (1694–1778) • Attacked intolerance in society, politics, religion • “I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it!” John Locke (1632–1704) • Before governments existed we lived in a “State of Nature” • Our natural rights (rights that belong to all people) life, liberty and property could be taken away, thus we form governments to protect these rights • It is the duty of citizens to revolt against a government that is not securing their rights Montesquieu (1689–1755) • Argued that the best form of gov’t is one which power should be separated • Three branches – legislative, executive, judicial • “government should be set up so that no man need be afraid of another” Thomas Paine • Philadelphian • Author of many pamphlets including “Common Sense” – widely read, argued (in simple terms) for American independence! • “An army of principles can penetrate where an army of soldiers cannot.” Looking closer at the documents… • Analyze excerpts of Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” • APPARTS • Rewrite the excerpts in language a 4th grader could understand The Enlightenment and the American Revolution • Influenced largely by Enlightenment thinkers • Both the Declaration of Independence and the US Constitution embody enlightenment philosophy Thomas Jefferson Create a book jacket for Thomas Paine’s pamphlet On the front include: • The title • The author’s name • An eye catching visual that relates to the pamphlet’s theme On the back include: • Information about the author • At least one quote from the book and an explanation of what it means • Comments from other revolutionary leaders • Other details that may help the pamphlet sell!