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Bell Work
Wednesday 2/25
Look in your book beginning on page 623
to find the answers
• 1. What is the difference between the geocentric
and heliocentric theory?
• 2. What did Isaac Newton’s law of gravity
• 3. What are the main steps of the Scientific
Enlightenment and Revolution
Chapter 22
Section 1-The Scientific Revolution
The Roots of Modern Science
• Geocentric Theory-The
theory that the Earth was
the center of the universe
– Originally the idea came
from Aristotle
– The Greek astronomer
Ptolemy expanded the
theory in the second
The Roots of Modern Science
• Scientific RevolutionA new way of thinking
about the natural
world by replacing old
assumptions with new
A Revolutionary Model of the
• Heliocentric TheoryCopernicus’s theory that
the stars, Earth and the
other planets revolved
around the sun
– He published this theory
in his book:
On the Revolutions of the
Heavenly Bodies in 1543
A Revolutionary Model of the
• Galileo Galilei-Italian
– Published Starry Messenger
in 1610
• Wrote that Jupiter had four
• The Sun had dark spots
• The moon had a rough uneven
• Disproved that the moon and
stars were made of a perfect
The Scientific Method
• The Scientific Method-A logical
procedure for gathering and testing
– Step 1: Begins with a problem or
– Step 2: Form a hypothesis
– Step 3: Test the hypothesis
– Step 4: Analyze and interpret the data
• Data confirms or disproves the hypothesis
Newton Explains the Law of
• Isaac NewtonEnglish scientist who
developed the law of
– Theorized that the
same physical laws of
motion governed both
the planets and
objects on Earth
The Scientific Revolution Spreads
• Important scientific inventions and
– Microscope (1590)
– First red blood cells are examined
– Mercury barometer was invented
• Measures atmospheric pressure and
predicted weather
– First thermometer is invented (1714)
The Scientific Revolution Spreads
• Other important scientific
inventions and discoveries
• Studying human remains
advances the study of anatomy
• Late 1700’s small pox vaccine
is created
• The Sceptical Chymist (1661)
by Boyle identified the worlds
four main elements
– Earth, Wind, Fire, Water
Bell Work
Thursday 2/26
Look in your book beginning on page 629
to find the answers
• 1. According to John Locke what are the
natural rights people are born with?
• 2. Who were the philosophes and what things
did they advocate?
• 3. What was the legacy of the Enlightenment?
Section 2-The Enlightenment in
Setting the Stage
• The EnlightenmentA new intellectual
movement that
stressed reason,
thought and the power
of individuals to solve
Two Views on Government
• Social ContractThomas Hobbes theory
that if people hand their
rights to a strong ruler
that they would recieve
law and order
– Ideally an absolute
monarchy that could
impose order and
demand obedience
Two Views on Government
• John Locke’s Natural
Rights– He believed that people were
born free and equal with three
main rights
• Life, Liberty and Property
– The purpose of government
was to protect these rights
– If the government fails the
people have the right to
overthrow it
The Philosophes Advocate Reason
• Philosophes-Social critics in
France during the mid-1700’s
– They had five core beliefs
The Philosophes Advocate Reason
• Voltaire– Born François-Marie
– Published more than 70
books in his life
– Used satire against his
• Targeted the government,
clergy, and aristocracy
The Philosophes Advocate Reason
• Montesquieu-A French
baron who devoted
himself to the study of
political liberty
– His ideas about separation
of power along with his
theory of checks and
balances became the basis
for the U.S. Constitution
Women and the Enlightenment
• Mary Wollstonecraft– Wrote A Vindication of
the Rights of Women
– Felt that women just like
men needed education to
be virtuous and useful
– Her daughter Mary
Shelly wrote
Legacy of the Enlightenment
• People became more accepting of
progressive beliefs
– Mainly scientific knowledge
– New discoveries were made in
chemistry, physics, biology, and
• Religious beliefs were questioned
and people developed more of a
secular outlook on life
• More emphasis was placed on the
individual within a society
Bell Work
Friday 2/27
Look in your book beginning on page 636
to find the answers
• 1. What were the defining aspects of
neoclassical art?
• 2. What new form of literature emerged during
the 18th Century?
• 3. Why were several 18th Century Europeans
known as enlightened despots?
Section 3-The Enlightenment Spreads
A World of Ideas
• Diderot’s Encyclopedia– Dennis Diderot began publishing
the 1st volumes in 1751
– They were a series of essays and
article by the leading scholars in
– The French government and
Catholic Church banned the books
– Helped spread ideas during the
Enlightenment throughout Europe
Diderot’s Encyclopedia
Diderot’s Encyclopedia
Diderot’s Encyclopedia
New Artistic Styles
• Baroque-European art during
the 1600s and early 1700s
which was characterized by a
grand ornate design
• Neoclassical-A simple and
elegant style of art that
barrowed themes from
classical Greek and Rome
Examples of Baroque Art
Examples of Baroque Art
Examples of Baroque Art
Examples of Neoclassical Art
Examples of Neoclassical Art
Examples of Neoclassical Art
New Artistic Styles
• Classical Music-Lighter
elegant style of music
– Famous classical
• Franz Joseph Haydn,
Wolfgang Amadeus
Mozart, Ludwig van
Enlightenment and Monarchy
• Enlightened Despots“Absolute rulers” that
embraced new ideas
and made reforms that
reflected the
Enlightenment and Monarchy
• Frederick II– a.k.a. Frederick the Great
– Persian king who ruled from
– Enlightened Accomplishments:
Granted religious freedom
Reduced censorship
Improved education
Abolished torture
Enlightenment and Monarchy
• Joseph II– Ruled Austria from 1780 to 1790
– The most radical of the reformers
– Enlightened Accomplishments:
Introduced legal reform
Allowed freedom of press
Supported freedom of worship
Abolished serfdom and ordered that
peasants be paid for their labor
Enlightenment and Monarchy
• Catherine the Great– Ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796
– Read the works of the
philosophes and corresponded
with Voltaire
– Enlightened Accomplishments:
• Formed a commission to review
Russia's laws
– She was not able to accomplish her
major reforms so she instituted more
limited reforms
Enlightenment and Monarchy
• Catherine the Great– Following the serf uprising in
1773, she gave the nobles in
Russia absolute control over
the serfs
• Serfs lost all traces of freedom
– Her armies gained control of
the northern shore of the
Black Sea and expanded
westward into Poland