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Where have we been?
Where are we going?
Middle Ages: Late 400’s-1600’s
Renaissance: Late 1200’s -1600’s
Reformation: 1500’s-1600’s
History is not isolated events and separate
chapters, but rather layers and stories that
are interwoven and tied together
Key vocab and concepts
Learning Targets:
1. What events helped to diminish the
prestige of the Catholic Church and the
Papacy (Causes of the Reformation)
2. What is a reformation?
3. What event caused the outbreak of the
4. What were the main ideas of teaching of
Martin Luther?
1. Crusades and Black Death
2. Great Schism and 100 Years War
3. Corruption within the Catholic Church
-simony, nepotism, absenteeism, pluaralism,
4. Renaissance Papacy-patrons to the arts
5. Printing Press
6. John Wycliffe & John Hus
7. Northern Humanists/Christian HumanistsDesiderius Erasmus
Lived from 1483-1546 in
Father encouraged him to
study law
A sudden religious
experience inspired him to
become a monk
He became troubled over the
possibility of not going to
He turned to the Bible, and
confession for comfort
In the Bible he found the
answer he was looking for
“The righteous shall by his faith.”
Luther realized that only faith (in
the ultimate goodness of Jesus), not
good deeds, could save a person. No
good works, rituals, etc. would save a
person if they did not believe.
The “SPARK” of the Reformation
• Sale of Indulgences
• Johan Tetzel – construction of Saint Peter’s
Basilica in Rome
A list of things he thought
were wrong with the Catholic
Church (95 Complaints)
He criticized:
The Power of the Pope
The Extreme Wealth of
the Church
Indulgences (Catholic
concept of Salvation)
Rested on 3 main ideas:
1. Salvation by faith alone.
2. Priesthood of all believers.
3. Bible as sole authority in religious affairs.
Posted his 95 Theses on Wittenburg
Church doors in Germany
Gutenburg’s Printing Press Made it
possible for Luther to spread his
Gained support from people and
criticism from Church
• Pope Leo X – Tried to silence Luther
• Issue a Papal Bull
He was the Pope during the
height of the corruption
The Reformation
• Charles V steps in (Pope Leo powerless to
stop Luther).
– Why does he want to stop Luther?
• Luther summoned to Worms to stand trial
for his teachings – Diet of Worms
• Luther was asked to recant (take back) what
he had said and written
– What does Luther do?
Diet of Worms
The Reformation
• Charles V – Issued the Edict of Worms:
• Edict of Worms:
– Luther is officially excommunicated
– Declared an outlaw and a heretic
• What is a heretic?
Effects of Luther’s Teachings
1. Lutheranism Spread Quickly
2. Peasant Revolt of 1524
“Smite, slay and stab the stupid and stubborn peasantry” –
Luther, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes
of Peasants
3. Lutheranism Adopted in German States
- Supported by German Princes who issued a formal
“protest” against the Church
“I am fed up with the
world, and it with me.
I am like a ripe stool,
and the world is like a
gigantic anus, and so
we’re about to let go
of each other.”
Lutheranism was formed
The protesting German princes and
reformers came to be known as
[PROTEST]ants - Protestants
Learning Targets
1. Identify and explain the beliefs of other
protestant groups that began to form as a
result of the Protestant reformation.
2. Identify areas on the map of Europe where
Protestantism and Catholicism existed.
Martin Luther
John Calvin
Henry VIII
“May little
chickens dig out
your eyes 100,000
Calvin speaking to
another reformer whose
ideas he disagreed with
Influenced by Martin Luther
Disagreed with Luther’s “Salvation
through faith alone.”
Created his own Protestant religion
in Switzerland
Calvin believed in:
 Salvation through Predestination
At birth it is decided if you will go
to heaven or hell
God knows everything that will
happen in your life
Purified approach to life:
No drinking, swearing, card
playing, gambling etc..
Started in Switzerland –
England = Puritans
Scotland = Presbyterians
Holland = Dutch Reform
France = Huguenots
Germany = Reform Church