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Chapter 5 Section 3 & 4:
The Protestant Reformation
The Spread of Protestantism
Section 3: The Protestant Reformation
Renaissance values of humanism & secularism led to
criticism of the Catholic Church’s extravagance
In Germany, the movement for church reform led to a split in
the Church (a new form of Christianity – Protestantism)
Martin Luther (1483 – 1546)
German monk, taught at University of Wittenberg
believed that a person could be saved simply by faith in
God’s mercy & love (this idea became know as justification
by faith)
Luther’s beliefs brought him into conflict w/ the Catholic
At the same time Pope Leo X was raising money by selling
church positions & indulgences
– indulgences – certificates issued by the Church that reduced or
canceled punishments for a person’s sins
Luther began preaching against the sell of indulgences
& other practices that he considered corrupt
Oct. 31, 1517 - Luther nailed his “Ninety-Five Theses”
to the door of the Wittenberg church
– theses - arguments arranged to support a particular
Many Germans agreed w/ Luther & broke from the
Church’s influence
1520 - a papal bull was issued against Luther, ordering
him to take back what he had written
– papal bull - serious decree issued by the pope
marked by his seal or “bulla”
1521 - Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther from the
– Later that year, the Edict of Worms was issued,
making Luther an outlaw in the Holy Roman Empire
Luther laid the foundation of the 1st Protestant faith:
Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism
As the Protestant Reformation swept through Europe, some
countries took to Luther’s ideas and others still supported
the Catholic Church
John Calvin (1509 – 1564)
French theology student
fled to Switzerland to escape religious persecution
Calvinists rejected all rituals of the Catholic church
Calvin ruled in Switzerland, leader of a theocracy
– theocracy – government led by a church
Under Calvin’s rule, luxury & games were seen as sinful
– “Idle hands are the Devil’s playthings.”
Calvinists were called Huguenots in France & Puritans in
Quarrels between the pope & King Henry VIII started the
Reformation in England.
1527 - Henry VIII wanted a divorce & the pope would not
grant it
1534 - Church of England (Anglican Church) was
– Anglicans had the same beliefs as Catholics, but the king of England
was the head of the church, not the pope
Henry’s son, Edward IV died in his teens & his sister Mary
took over rule of England
Mary became queen & tried to restore Catholicism, burning
hundreds of Protestants at the stake
– earned her the nickname “Bloody Mary”
1558 – Mary died & her half sister, Elizabeth I, became
Elizabeth made the Anglican Church protestant w/ some
Catholic features, distancing its relationship to the old
Church of Rome.