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Yr 7 – History Knowledge Organiser: The Crusades in Depth
Key Words
Holy War
The Holy Land
is an Islamic term referring to a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād
means "struggle" or "resisting". A person on jihad is called a mujahid (holy warrior).
A person who journeys to a holy place for religious reasons.
The journey taken by the pilgrim.
A war declared or waged in support of a religious cause.
A term used by Jews, Christians, and Muslims for an area in the Middle
East which is the setting for many religious stories and events.
L1 – How did Islam respond to the success of the First Crusade in 1099?
Zengi - Imad ad-Din Zengi (reigned1127-1146) was a warlord who conquered and important cities of
Mosul (Mo-sall), Aleppo (Al-ep-po), Hama (Hammer) and Edessa (Ed-esser). Zengi united the powerful
cities of Mosul and Aleppo and fought back against the crusaders with great effect.
Nur ad- Din - (reigned 1146-1174) was the second son of Zengi. He was a fierce enemy of the crusaders
and hated their presence in the east. Nur ad-Din fought and won crucial victories against the crusaders
and took the vital city of Damascus.
Saladin - He is one of the most famous Muslims in history and was one of the greatest enemies of the
crusaders. Saladin was a Kurdish soldier under the command of his lord Nur ad-Din. He was particularly
gifted and rose through the ranks.Between 1169 and 1171 Saladin was cleverly able to gain control of
L2 – Who was Saladin and why is he remembered for 1187?
Key Events
Saladin was born and spent his early life in Balbek and Damascus.
Saladin served under the Syrian ruler Nur ad-Din fighting against crusaders in the Holy Land.
Saladin conquers the Muslim rulers of Egypt and became Sultan (king).
Death of Nur ad-Din.
Saladin invaded Syria and conquered the Muslim city of Damascus.
Attempt to kill Saladin by the Muslim leader of the order of Assassins, Rashideddin.
Saladin invaded the Crusader States and was humiliatingly defeated by the new
sixteen year old king of Jerusalem, Baldwin IV.
Saladin conquered the Syrian city of Aleppo.
Saladin conquered the Mosul in Iraq.
Saladin destroyed the crusader army at the battle of Hattin and captured Jerusalem.
L3 – Was Richard a good king and did he deserve his title?
Richard was born in 1157 to King Henry II of England and Duchess
Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was born into the Angevin Dynasty
(family) who ruled the kingdom of England after the Normans
between 1154-1242. The first Angevin king of England was Henry II
who expanded the kingdom’s lands hugely but spent most of his life
trying to stop rebellions. Richard’s oldest brother William died very
young. His second oldest brother (another Henry!) was known as
the ‘young king’ and was expected to take over from their father.
However, Henry the Young King died unexpectedly and Richard
became heir to the kingdom. In July 1189 Henry II died. Richard and
his father had not spoken in years but suddenly Richard was now
king of one of the most powerful empires in the world.
L4 - Who was greater; Richard or Saladin?
July 1190 – King Philip of France and Richard I of
England set out on the Third Crusade with two large
July 1191 – The city of Acre which had been under
siege for two years surrendered to King Philip and
Richard I
Sept 1191 –Richard and Saladin fought at the battle
of Arsuf. This was an outstanding victory for Richard.
1187 – Saladin won the Battle of Hattin, destroying
the crusader army and taking control of Jerusalem
Jun 1192 – Richard’s Third Crusade marched again
towards Jerusalem. Saladin held Jerusalem by the
skin of his teeth.
Oct 1192 –The Third Crusade had failed. On the
route home he was captured and ransomed. Saladin
died five months later.
L5 - How important were the crusades and how has the term ‘crusade’ changed?
Following the 9/11 attack, the USA responded with a ‘War on Terror’. Western troops were once again in the
Middle East. Extreme Islamists saw aggression from America and her western allies as the renewal of the
crusades. There invasions in Iraq, Afghanistan, influence in Syria and Libya. There have been attempts by
western countries to control smaller countries without any right or understanding.
Conflicts still occur across the world. Still today in Syria there is a massive civil war. Bombings in European
countries and conflict across the Middle East in other countries such as Israel and the free state of Palestine.
Are crusades really still happening today?
Knowledge Quiz Scores:
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