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HISTORY OF JUDAISM(Review from Yesterday) Abraham is the father of the Hebrews About 1800 B.C. he lived in a city called Ur in Mesopotamia It is believed that God told Abraham to leave Ur and go to Canaan(present day Israel) God told Abraham that if he went to Canaan the land there would belong to his descendents This was a promise from God and so Canaan(Israel) is considered the Promised Land EGYPT There was a famine in Canaan The Israelites were starving and so they went to Egypt A new pharaoh came to power He enslaved the Israelites and made them work on his building projects MOSES Moses helped the Israelites leave Egypt This is known as the Exodus They wandered around the Sinai Desert for 40 years Moses climbed to the top of Mt Sinai and God spoke to him Moses carried two stone tablets down the mountain The Ten Commandments were written on the tablets Return to Promised Land The Israelites wanted to reclaim their land in Canaan This lead to 200 years of war After a period of peace the Philistines invade and King David is able to drive them out King Solomon succeeds King David After King Solomon died the Israelite Kingdom split in two: Israel and Judah The word Judaism and Jew come from the name Judah during this time in history. Who is followed and important teachings First Monotheistic religion- a belief in one God Believe Messiah will appear in Jerusalem and bring peace and harmony to the world It is important to follow the Ten Commandments The first four commandments have to do with a relationship with God The next six have to do with a relationship with other people. Religious Book--TORAH Torah-The first five books of the Hebrew Bible There is a belief that these were given to the people by God They give the early history, laws, and beliefs of the Hebrews The five books are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy Sabbath or Shabbat Sundown Friday to sundown Saturday People should refrain from work Many go to the Synagogue- the Jewish place of worship Spend time with family, reading the Torah, and eating traditional meals. Holy Days Rosh Hashanah: the Jewish New Year- a 10 day period of repentance, renewal and remembrance Yom Kippur: “Day of Atonement”- pray for forgiveness of oneself and others Hanukkah: “Festival of Lights”- celebrated the miracle of 1 day of oil lasting 8 days at the rededication of the Temple in Jerusalem Passover: a time to remember the slaves Exodus from Egypt Mitzvah Bar Mitzvah- “son of commandment”- occurs when a boy is 13 Bat Mitzvah- “daughter of commandment”- occurs when a girl is 12 These are ceremonies held to celebrate the child’s passage to adulthood FACTS Rabbi- a Jewish spiritual leader Worldwide population-14.5 million Christianity and Islam grew out of Judaism Judaism is practiced all over the world, but many Jews live in Israel, where a Jewish state was created in 1948. Symbol The Star of David, also called the Shield of David, is a very important symbol of Judaism. The symbol honors King David, who ruled the Kingdom of Israel about 1000-962 B.C.