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Transcript
AP Chem - CHAPTER 3 &4 REVIEW
Memorize the following
- Solubility Rules.
- Strong acids and bases
Answer the following questions (making solutions & electrolytes)
1. I need 400 ml solution of .2 M NaOH. I only have a 6M solution available. How would I make
the solution that I need?
2. Explain how to prepare 300 mL of 1.75 M HCl solution if I start with 12.1 M solution.
3. How many C atoms are in 5.50 g of C? (2.76  1023 C atoms)
4. How many moles of CF4 are there in 171 g of CF4? (1.94)
5. Calculate the mass of N in 2.34 g of N2H4? (2.05g)
6. A mass spectrometer works by ionizing atoms or molecules, and then accelerating them through oppositely
charged plates. The mass is obtained by
A. measuring the force of impact on a detecting screen, and then calculating the mass
using force = mass  acceleration.
B. suspending the ions in an applied electric field, and then calculating mass by the
setting the downward gravitational force equal to the upward electrostatic force.
C. measuring the magnitude of deflection as the ions pass through a magnetic field to
obtain the charge-to-mass ratio, and then calculating the mass from that ratio.
D. measuring the time it takes for the ions to hit the detector at a known distance to
calculate the acceleration, and then calculating mass from force = mass 
acceleration.
7. A compound with an empirical formula of C2H2Br3 has a molar mass of 531.47 g/mol. What is the molecular
formula? (C4H4Br6)
8. The empirical formula of a compound of uranium and fluorine that is composed of 67.6% uranium and 32.4%
fluorine is (UF6)
9. What is the coefficient of H2O when the following equation is properly balanced?
___ Al4C3 + ___ H2O  ___ Al(OH)3 + ___ CH4
10. Vanadium(V) oxide reacts with calcium according to the chemical equation below. When 10.0 moles of
V2O5 are mixed with 10.0 moles of Ca, which is the limiting reagent?
V2O5(s) + 5Ca(l)  2V(l) + 5CaO(s)
11. Phosphorus pentachloride reacts with water to form hydrochloric acid and phosphoric acid. How many total
moles of acid are formed when starting with 4.5 g of PCl5 and excess H2O? (0.13)
PCl5 + 4H2O  5HCl + H3PO4
12. Calculate the mass of FeS formed when 9.42 g of iron reacts with 8.50 g of sulfur according to the following
reaction. (14.8g)
Fe(s) + S(s)  FeS(s)
13. The first step in the Ostwald process for producing nitric acid is
4NH3(g) + 5O2(g)  4NO(g) + 6H2O(g).
If the reaction of 150. g of ammonia with 150. g of oxygen gas yields 87. g of nitric oxide (NO),
what is the percent yield of this reaction? (77%)
14.The Hall process for the production of aluminum involves the reaction of aluminum oxide with elemental
carbon to give aluminum metal and carbon monoxide. If the yield of this reaction is 75%, what mass
of aluminum metal can be produced from the reaction of 1.65  106 g of aluminum oxide with 1.50 
106 g of carbon? (6.6  105 g)
15. Which of the following compounds is a strong electrolyte?
A. H2O
B. N2
C. CH3COOH (acetic acid)
D. KOH
16. Identify the major ionic species present in an aqueous solution of NH4ClO4.
A. NH4+, Cl-, 4O2B. N3-, 4H+, Cl-, 4O2C. 4NH+, 4ClOD. NH4+, ClO417. Based on the solubility rules, which of the following compounds should be insoluble in water?
A. Na2SO4
B. BaSO4
C. CuSO4
D. MgSO4
18. Based on the solubility rules, which of the following should be soluble in water?
A. CaSO4
B. BaSO4
C. PbSO4
D. KK2SO4
19. Which of the following will occur when solutions of CuSO4(aq) and BaCl2(aq) are mixed?
A. A precipitate of CuCl2 will form; Ba2+ and SO42– are spectator ions.
B. A precipitate of CuSO4 will form; Ba2+ and Cl– are spectator ions.
C. A precipitate of BaSO4 will form; Cu2+ and Cl– are spectator ions.
D. A precipitate of BaCl2 will form; Cu2+ and SO42– are spectator ions.
20. What is the correct net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when solutions of AgNO3 and NH4Cl are
mixed.
A. AgNO3(aq) + NH4Cl(aq)  AgCl(s) + NH4Cl(aq)
B. NH4+(aq) + NO3-(aq)  NH4NO3(s)
C. AgNO3(aq) + NH4Cl(aq)  AgCl(s) + NH4Cl(s)
D. Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)  AgCl(s)
21. Which of the following compounds is a strong acid?
A. HF
B. HI
C. HClO2
D. H2SO3
22. For which one of the following acids is chlorine in the +5 oxidation state?
A. HCl
B. HClO
C. HClO2
D. HClO3
23. Using the redox reaction below determine which element is oxidized and which is reduced.
4NH3 + 3Ca(ClO)2  2N2 + 6H2O + 3CaCl2
A.
B.
C.
D.
H is oxidized and N is reduced
N is oxidized and Cl is reduced
N is oxidized and O is reduced
Cl is oxidized and O is reduced
24. What mass of C6H12O6 (glucose) is needed to prepare 450. mL of a 0.650 M solution of glucose in water?
(52.7 g)
25. A 4.691 g sample of MgCl2 is dissolved in enough water to give 750. mL of solution. What is the
magnesium ion concentration in this solution? (6.57  10–2 M)
26. 17.5 mL of a 0.1050 M Na2CO3 solution is added to 46.0 mL of 0.1250 M NaCl. What is the concentration
of sodium ion in the final solution? (0.148 M)
Equations: Write the net ionic equations. (check solubility)
27. NaCl(aq) + KNO3(aq) 
28. FeCl3(aq) + AgNO3(aq) 
29. Na2SO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) 
30. KOH(aq) + H2SO4(aq) 
31. HF (aq) + NaOH 
Answer the following questions
32. The following solutions are mixed, 250.0 mL of 0.175 M AgNO3(aq) with 150.0 mL
of 0.125 M KCL (aq) resulting in the formation of AgCl(s) and KNO3(aq).
a. What is the limiting reactant?
b. How many grams of silver chloride are produced?
33. 3Ag (s) + 4HNO3  3AgNO3 + NO (g) + 2H2O
The reaction of silver metal and dilute nitric acid proceeds according to the equation
above. If 0.30 mol of powdered silver is added to 50.0 mL of 5.0 M nitric acid, what
is the number of moles of NO gas that can be formed?