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The Liberators
Objective: To identify and explain the effects
of the Atlantic Revolutions
Do Now: What were the Atlantic Revolutions
and what ideals did the revolutions foster?
I. Independence Movements in Latin America
A. The final act in the Atlantic revolutions took place in Latin America
B. Influenced by preceding events in North America, France, and _______
C. Native-born elites in Spanish colonies, creoles, were offended by Spanish
monarchy’s efforts to exercise power through heavier _____ and tariffs
D. But unlike North Americahad little tradition of local self-government
E. Spanish colonial society was far more authoritarian and divided by class
and culture was informed by a strict Catholicism
F. Whites were also vastly outnumbered by Native _________, people of
African ancestry, or individuals of mixed race
G. In 1808, Napoleon invaded Spain and Portugal, deposing the _______ king
Ferdinand VII and forcing the Portuguese royal family into exile in ______
H. With legitimate royal authority in disarray, Latin Americans took action
I. Outcome was independence for various states in Latin America by 1826
J. In Mexico, the move toward independence began in 1810 in a __________
insurrection, driven by hunger for land and by high food prices
K. Led successively by two priests, Miguel Hidalgo and José Morelos, peasant
insurrection frightened creole landowners and was crushed
L. Later creole elites brought Mexico to ___________ in 1821
M. An abortive rebellion of Native Americans in Peru in the early 1780s, made
in the name of the last Inca emperor, Tupac Amaru reminded whites that a
society with many exploited and oppressed individuals could easily ______
N. Yet leaders like Simón Bolívar and José de San Martín required support of
people  solution found in nativism which cast all born in __________ as
Americanos  And lower classes benefitted little from independence
O. And distances among colonies and geographic obstacles to effective
___________ were greater in Latin America than the eastern seaboard of
the United States  there would be no “Gran Colombia” (Bolívar’s dream
of a united South America)
II. The Ideals of the Atlantic Revolutions and Reactions to the Ideals
A. Within Europe following Napoleon’s defeat, representatives at Congress of
Vienna (1814-1815) tried to restore old ways and redrew ________ to create
a balance of power but revolutions still broke out in Europe
B. Universal male suffrage was granted by 1914 in Western Europe, United
States, and Argentina
C. And from roughly 1780 to 1890, slavery lost its legitimacy and largely _____
D. Abolitionist movement, particularly in Britain, brought growing pressure
on governments to end the trade in slaves and to ban slavery
E. In 1807, Britain forbade the sale of slaves within its empire and in 1834
emancipated those who remained enslaved
F. In 1807, Britain forbade the sale of slaves within its empire and in 1834
____________ those who remained enslaved
G. A similar set of conditions – fear of rebellion, economic inefficiency, and
moral concerns – persuaded the Russian tsar to free the _______ in 1861
H. United States was only slaveholding society in which end of slavery occurred
through a bitter, prolonged, and highly destructive ______ war (1861-1865)
I. Yet nowhere in the Atlantic world, except Haiti, did a redistribution of land
follow the end of slavery economic lives of former slaves did not improve
J. And in West and East Africa, the end of the external slave trade decreased
prices for slaves which increased their use within African ___________
K. Europeans justified colonial rule in Africa in the late nineteenth century
with the claim that they were doing so to emancipate enslaved Africans
III. Nationalism
A. Europe’s modern transformation facilitated nationalism, as older identities
and loyalties ___________
B. Migration to industrial cities diminished allegiance to local communities
C. Nationalism inspired the political unification of Germany under the
leadership of Otto von Bismarck and the ___________ state
D. And the unification of Italy under the leadership of Count Camillo di
Cavour, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Giuseppe Garibaldi by 1871
E. Encouraged Greeks and Serbs to assert ___________ from Ottomans
F. Czechs and Hungarians demanded more autonomy within Austrian Empire
G. By end of nineteenth century, small Zionist movement, seeking a homeland
in Palestine, had emerged among Europe’s frequently ___________ Jews
H. Popular nationalism made the normal rivalry among European states more
acute and fueled a competitive drive for colonies in Asia and Africa
I. In the hands of conservatives, nationalism could be used to combat
socialism and feminism, for those movements only ________ the nation
J. An “Egypt for Egyptians” movement arose in the 1870s as British and
French intervention in Egyptian affairs deepened
K. The Indian National Congress was ___________ in 1885
L. Idea of the Ottoman Empire as a Turkish national state rather than a
Muslim or dynastic empire took hold among a few people
IV. Feminism
A. Third echo of Atlantic revolutions lay in emergence of a _______ movement
B. French Revolution raised possibility of re-creating human societies on new
foundations many women participated in the ____________
C. First organized expression of this new feminism took place at a women’s
right conference in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848
D. By the 1870s, feminists in the ______ were focusing primarily suffrage
E. 1893, New Zealand became first country to give the vote to all _____ women
F. But in France, female suffrage was not achieved until 1945
G. Feminism did not have revolutionary consequences but it still raises issues
 How were the Spanish American revolutions shaped by the American, French, and
Haitian revolutions that happened earlier?
 What accounts for the end of Atlantic slavery during the nineteenth century?
 How did the end of slavery affect the lives of the former slaves?
 What accounts for the growth of nationalism as a powerful political and personal
identity in the nineteenth century?
 What were the achievements and limitations of nineteenth-century feminism?
1. Which event in Europe contributed
4. Which social practices of the early
most directly to the wave of
United States were replicated in
independence struggle in early
newly independent Spanish Latin
nineteenth-century Latin America?
(A) Publication of the Gutenberg
(A) Slavery was maintained.
(B) Women remained subordinate to
(B) The Reconquista
(C) Napoleon’s invasion of Spain
(C) Property restrictions were placed
(D) Fascist aerial bombardment of
on voting.
(D) Established colonial elites moved
(E) Onset of World War I
to the top ranks of political
2. Why was the struggle for Brazilian
(E) All of the above.
independence distinctive in Latin
American history?
5. Which of the following concerns
(A) Brazil was the only colony whose
made Creole elites, who yearend for
economy was dependent on cash
independence from Spain, what we
might call “cautious
(B) Brazil remained a monarchy
after independence.
(A) Fear that the Spanish monarchs
(C) Brazil abolished slavery before
were more capable rulers
independence was achieved.
(B) Fear that continued rapid
(D) Brazil was the first colony to
industrialization would create
achieve independence.
urban instability
(E) Brazil was the only ethnically
(C) A growing communist threat
diverse colony where racial
inspired by the example of the
hierarchy did not exist before or
Bolshevik Revolution
after independence.
(D) Fear that slaves and other
oppressed groups would target
3. After the United States, which was
local elites as part of a general
the next New World colony to gain
social upheaval
independence from Europe?
(E) Fear that women would reject
(A) Mexico
subordination in the private and
(B) Argentina
public spheres if independence
(C) Brazil
were achieved
(D) Haiti
(E) Cuba
Excerpt from
The stage for the upheaval and dissatisfaction that gave rise to Mexican independence was
set by political and economic changes in Europe and its American colonies of the late 18th
and 19th centuries. The French revolution and Napoleonic wars diverted attention of Spain
from its colonies leaving a vacuum and increasing dissatisfaction and desire for local
government. The forced removal of Ferdinand VII from the Spanish thrown and his
replacement by Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon's brother presented opportunity for Mexican
intelligentsia to promote independence in the name of the legitimate Spanish king. From its
inception the colonial government of New Spain was dominated by Spanish born
Peninsulares or Guachapins, who held most leadership positions in the church and
government, in contrast to Mexican-born Criollos (Creoles) who were the ten to one
majority. Neither Peninsulares nor upper class Criollos desired to involve the masses of
native Indians and mestizos in government or moves for local control. In 1808 the
Peninsulares learned of Viceroy Jose de Iturrigaray’s intent to form a junta with Creole
factions, a move that he thought might make him King of an independent Mexican
kingdom. In an armed attack on the palace, Peninsulares arrested Iturrigaray and replaced
him with puppet Pedro Garibay after which they carried out bloody reprisals against
Criollos who were suspected of disloyalty. Although reform movements paused, political
and economic instability in Europe continued as well as hardship and unrest in the
In September 1810, Father Hidalgo was forced to prematurely distribute the Grito de
Dolores to his parishioners and nearby residents which was an appeal for social and
economic reform. With little organization and no training, essentially a mob of thousands
of primarily Indians and mestizos overwhelmed royal forces in Guanajuato, and proceeded
to murder and loot Peninsulares, Criollos and other "whites" in their path. The force
continued to Mexico City and defeated royalist on the outskirts, but did not enter and
occupy the city after which the ragged revolutionary army returned home. Hidalgo and his
Creole officers were later able to assemble an army of 80,000 by payment with looted
Peninsular gold and assets. Viceroy Francisco Javier Venegas, and his soon to be successor
Gen. Félix María Calleja del Rey responded to the insurgency with a vengeance and in
January 1811 Hidalgo suffered a serious defeat outside Guadalajara where rebel forces
were routed at Calderon Bridge. Bloody retaliation followed by mass executions of
suspected rebel sympathizers by Spanish crown forces under Viceroy Calleja Del Rey.
Hidalgo and associates turned toward the Northern provinces Nuevo Santander, Nuevo
León, Coahuila and Texas for refuge where local sympathy for the rebellion and
independence continued. Royalist forces in Nuevo Santander refused to fight against the
insurgents as well as troops under Governor Manuel Antonio Cordero y Bustamante in
Coahuila. As the royalist forces moved north to crush resistance, it was only in Coahuila
and Texas that revolutionary events continued. On 21 March 1811, a periodic rebel turned
loyalist, Ignacio Elizondo, ambushed Ignacio Allende, Father Hidalgo and associates at the
Wells of Baján on the road to Monclova in Coahuila. Hidalgo and associates were captured
and executed in Chihuahua…
Thesis Statement: Comparative: Independence and After: Haiti and Latin America