Download Ch 21: Cardiovascular System - The Heart -

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Give a detailed description of the
superficial and internal anatomy of the
heart, including the pericardium, the
myocardium, and the cardiac muscle.
Ch 21: Cardiovascular System
- The Heart Explain the functioning of the valves of the heart and how
they relate to the heart sounds.
Discuss the conductive pathway of the heart, and relate
that to clinical uses of the ECG.
Pulmonary & Systemic Circuits
Location of Heart within
Thoracic Cavity
•Inside thoracic cavity
•In center of chest deep to
sternum, apex tipped toward the
left; base superior
•Inside mediastinum
•In pericardial space
Pericardium - Covering
1. Fibrous pericardium - tough, collagenous
2. Serous parietal pericardium (lines fibrous pericardium)
3. Pericardial space with 10-20 ml of pericardial fluid
4. Serous visceral pericardium adheres to the heart surface
(also known as epicardium)
Structure of Heart Wall
Epicardium = visceral Pericardium (serosa)
Myocardium: muscle tissue + c.t. + blood vessels + ?
Endocardium: simple squamous epithelium continuous
with endothelia
of blood vessels
Cardiac Muscle
Striated, aerobic,
Intercalated discs gap junctions, strong
Functional syncytium
Fig 21.3
Fibrous Skeleton
Internal c.t. network with lots of collagen
and elastic fibers
Encircles bases of great vessels
Encircles bases of valves
Isolate atria from ventricles elctrically
Reinforce myocardium itself
Surface Anatomy of Heart
Auricle of atria (expandable)
Coronary sulcus (between atria &
Ant. & post. interventricular sulcus
Base (3rd costal cartilage) vs. apex (5th intercostal
Vessels entering & leaving the heart
Fig 21.5
Sectional (Internal) Heart
Atria & ventricles
Interatrial & interventricular septae
Valves (fibrous tissue)
Pectinate muscles (auricles & ant. atria)
Trabeculae carneae (ventricles)
Chordae tendinae & papillary muscles
Fig 21.6
Left vs. Right Ventricle
Left: high pressure
pump - Right: low
pressure pump 
right chamber is
thinner walled than
Ventricles separated
by interventricular
Structure and Function of Valves
= Mitral valve
4 sets of valves
Prevent backflow of
Close passively under blood pressure
Heart sounds produced by valve closure
Support for AV valves:
valves are restrained by
chordae tendinae which are
in turn attached to papillary
muscles (prevention of
picture taken from R ventricle, looking toward R atrium (see fig 21.6)
Mitral Valve Prolapse
Most common cardiac variation (5-10% of
Mitral valve cusps do not
close properly
Regurgitation during left
ventricular systole
Not life threatening;
may be lifestyle threatening
How can you diagnose?
Blood flow pattern through the heart
Blood enters right atrium
Passes tricuspid valve into right ventricle
Leaves by passing pulmonary semilunar valves into
pulmonary trunk and to the lungs to be oxygenated
Returns from the lung by way of pulmonary veins into the
left atrium
From left atrium past bicuspid valve into left ventricle
Leaves left ventricle past aortic semilunar valves into
Distributed to rest of the body
Actual physical
contraction pattern of the
myocardium as
determined by the
A. Contraction is systole
B. Relaxation is diastole
The two atria are in
systole and diastole
together as are the two
Cardiac Cycle
Auscultation of Heart Sounds:
1st HS: at beginning of ventricular contraction, due to?
2nd HS: at beginning of ventricular diastole, due to?
Coronary Circulation
Coronary arteries: first branches off the ascending aorta.
coronary veins
posterior view
coronary sinus
right atrium
(inferior to opening
of inferior vena cava)
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
due to ?
consequences ?
PET scan
the brighter the color the greater the blood flow through tissue
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
~ 1.3 Mio MIs / year in US
Most commonly due to severe CAD (coronary
Ischemic tissue degenerates → nonfunctional area =
Predisposing factors?
Conducting System of the Heart
Specialized muscle cells (autorhythmic cells) conduct APs to time and
synchronize the action of the chambers
SA node -pacemaker, spontaneously depolarizes most rapidly and initiate
heart beat, positioned on back wall of right atrium , transmits action
potential to
AV node - (where the four chambers meet).
AV bundle (bundle of His) transmits down top of interventricular septum
where it divides into two
Bundle branches, one of which supplies each ventricle where they branch
Purkinje fibers reflect up external walls of ventricles and stimulate
contraction of cardiac muscle cells as a unit.
Purkinje fibers extend into papillary muscles as well