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Transcript
Viruses and Bacteria
Name____________________________________________________________________________Textbook Pages:_____________________assign#_______
Virus Notes:
Bacteriophage
2. A virus is a_________________ particle with a simple structure. Composed of a ____________
___________ (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein __________.
3. Virus Structure:

Flu Virus

Capsid - The capsid is the protein shell that encloses the nucleic acid; Three functions:
1) it ____________________ the nucleic acid from digestion by enzymes,
2) contains special _____________ on its ____________ that allow the virus to
attach to a host cell, and
3) Allow virus nucleic acid ____________________ the host cell’s membrane and, in
some cases, to _____________ the infectious
nucleic acid into the cell's cytoplasm.
Envelope - Surrounds the capsid. Composed of two
____________ layers interspersed with protein
molecules.
5. Viral Nucleic Acid

The nucleic acid of each virus encodes the genetic
information for the synthesis of all _______________.

Only a few groups of viruses use ________________.

Most viruses maintain all their genetic information with
the single-stranded _______.
6. Viruses that have RNA as their genetic material ___________
more often.
6 ½ Retrovirus: __________________________________________
EX: ___________
8. Viral
“Life”
Cycles
Lytic Cycle
The virus attaches to a host cell and ___________ its
nucleic acid _______ the cell.
The viral nucleic acid is immediately _______________,
eventually causing the host cell to ________________,
releasing new viral particles.
These new viruses then ___________ other cells.
Lysogenic Cycle
After the virus embeds its nucleic acid into the
chromosome of the host cell, the viral nucleic acid is
_______________along with the host cell’s DNA.
Then the virus becomes _____________ for a
period of time. The virus may suddenly become
____________, resuming the lytic cycle.
Georgia Bio Standards: SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 1
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
Vaccines
12.
16.
13.
• Made from _________________ of a virus.
• Then when our bodies see the virus again it ______________ and fights the
virus.
• Antibiotics ________ ___________ work on viruses!
• Most vaccines contain purified fragments taken from ____________________
bacteria or viruses. Some vaccines contain ________________ viruses, but in a
very ________________ form that dos not cause disease.
• "_______________" the immune system how to recognize and fight bacteria and
viruses
• Stimulates the body’s ____________________ response
Prions:

Prion-is a type of infectious agent made only of _____________. EX: _______________________________
17. Viroids:
 Viroids-small naked single-stranded _____________ ____________ that infect _____________ cells
and cause disease.
Size
Comparison
Virus
Structure
Thinking Questions (on your own):
Why is it that viruses can use human host cells for reproduction?
What properties of viruses (and human cells) make this even
possible?
Viruses are infectious particles made of a protein shell called a capsid, which contains either DNA or
RNA. The genetic material is single-stranded or double-stranded, depending on the kind of virus. Some
viruses have an outer membranous envelope which covers the capsid. These viral envelopes, derived
from the host cell membrane, may contain both viral and host cell lipids and proteins.
Viruses are not considered living organisms because they are not cells and they cannot reproduce
outside of a host cell. Viruses must infect a living cell, a host, in order to reproduce their viral genetic
material and to make new viral proteins. Like living organisms, viruses contain genetic material (either
DNA or RNA), can reproduce, respond to their environment, and evolve. Unlike living organisms, viruses
are not cells, do not contain organelles, and are unable to reproduce in the absence of a host cell.
Further, viruses are able to form crystals and still be viable. Living cells are not able to survive
crystallization.
QUESTIONS: Underline the answers in the paragraphs above.
1- What is the genetic material like in a virus? _________________________________________
2- What are viral envelopes made of? ________________________________________________
3- What do viruses need in order to reproduce (because they can’t do it on their own? ____________
4- How are viruses like living things? _______________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
5- How are viruses UNLIKE living things? _____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
Anti-viral Drugs
Antiviral drugs do
not destroy their
target; instead they
attempt to inhibit
their development.
One anti-viral
strategy is to
interfere with the
ability of a virus to
infiltrate a target
cell.
Another strategy is
to interfere with
viral replication
after it enters the
cell.
Georgia Bio Standards: SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 2
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
Bacteria Notes
2.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1. Largest
2. _____________________________
3. _____________________________
4. Most use oxygen but some are anaerobic.
3.
Unicellular
__________________
Ancestors of ________________
Lives in ___________ environments.
Shapes: What are the three shapes of bacteria? ____________, ________, _____________
Bacteria Structure
4. Label and give a short description:
______________________________
_____________________________________
______________________
_______________
________________________________
_______________________________________
________________________________________________
5. Gram staining is a _______________ scientist use to
determine _________ ________ type in bacteria.
6. _____________ help bacteria stick to _________________.
7.
Movement:
Bacteria use a whip-like ______________ to move.
Some bacteria don’t move, this is called _______________.
8.
Nutrition:
Bacteria
can be
1.
3.
2.
9.
Breaking down food to release energy
(heterotrophs):
Releasing Energy
Obligate
Aerobes
Facultative
Anaerobes
How do bacteria
take in food?
How do bacteria
eliminate waste?
Obligate
Anaerobes
Georgia Bio Standards: SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 3
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
Bacteria Reproduction
Sexual
Asexual
10.
Split
Exchange DNA
12. During Binary fission, the __________ of chromosomes is followed by the bacterial
________ _______________ into two cells.
14. Some bacteria can form __________________that allow them to wait out
____________ environmental conditions. The spores may remain _______________ for
years until conditions become favorable. In favorable conditions, the spore splits
____________ and the bacteria rapidly reproduce.
BACTERIA
BACTERIA
16.
HELPFUL
HELPFUL
HARMFUL
HARMFUL
Soil--Soil---
Plants--Humans---
Plants---
Humans:
Humans--Humans---Food:cheese, yogurt, sauerkraut, & soy sauce.
Humans---Food:cheese, yogurt, sauerkraut, & soy sauce.
Photosynthesis produces __________
Photosynthesis produces __________
16
16
18.
Bacteria can harm their host in two ways:
1- by releasing ______________ that harm the body
2- by _____________ ___________ tissue for food.
Treatments: Before: _____________________ After: __________________
19. Who discovered the antibiotic Penicillin? ______________________________________
20. Antibiotics usually _______ cell _________ growth or _____________ synthesis.
Sterilization: __________________________________________________________________________________
COMPLETE THE CHART FOR BACTERIA BELOW ON YOUR OWN AS A REVIEW:
Mode of Nutrition
(How do they obtain energy?)
Are they Prokaryotic or
Eukaryotic?
Cell walls? Yes or no?
Nitrogen Fixation
(this is one of the most IMPORTANT
chemical reactions on the face of the
planet!!!!)
What is nitrogen fixation?
Are they Uni- or Multicellular?
Habitats?
How can they be helpful to Humans
(3 examples)
Endospore
How does forming an
endospore help a bacterium?
How can they be harmful (2)?
Methods of energy release (3
examples).
Georgia Bio Standards: SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 4
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
Prokaryote Coloring (you have to use certain colors, so read :)
Prokaryotes cells are the simplest of all the cells. Bacteria are prokaryotes and they fall into two major categories: The Kingdom
Eubacteria and the Kingdom Archaebacteria. Eubacteria are common types that occur all around us, usually in they are, on surfaces and
in the soil. You can only find Archaebacteria in extreme environments, like hot sulfur springs. Archaebacteria are thought to be some
of the oldest life forms on earth. Most bacteria don't make their own food. That means they have to rely on other organisms to provide
them with food. These bacteria have to break down, or decompose, other living things to obtain energy.
When most people hear the word bacteria, they think of something that is bad for you. In fact, very few bacteria cause illness. Some
bacteria actually help you! Bacteria are used to make food, such as cheese and yogurt, and they can also help us break down harmful
substances in the environment. Scientists created a type of bacteria that could gobble up oil from oil spills. Some bacteria live inside
the guts of animals and help them to digest food.
Unfortunately, there are many types of bacteria that can make us ill. Salmonella bacteria can cause food poisoning, and certain types of
bacteria are responsible for other infections. You might have had some experience with Streptococcus, the bacteria that causes strep
throat.
Bacteria have a very simple cell design. Most of them have a thick outer covering called the cell wall. On the picture, color the cell
wall purple (it’s the outermost layer). Just within the cell wall is the cell membrane. Color the cell membrane pink. Along the surface
of the bacteria cell, you might encounter structures called pilus, whose job is to help the bacteria stick to surfaces. Color all the pilus
light green. Bacteria might also need to move around in their environment, so they can have structures called flagella, which resemble
tails. Find the two flagella pictured and color them dark green. The watery interior of the cell is called cytoplasm, and it has the
texture of jello. Color the cytoplasm light blue. Sprinkled throughout the cell are small roundish structures called ribosomes.
Ribosomes make proteins for the cell. Color all of the ribosomes red. Every prokaryote cell has DNA floating within the cytoplasm,
which usually looks like a twisted strand of spaghetti. DNA contains the instructions for the cell, basically it is the control center. Find
the DNA and color it yellow.
Questions:
1. What bacteria causes strep throat? _________________
2. What are the oldest life forms on earth? ______________________
3. Name two types of bacteria that can make you sick:
____________________________________________
4. What part of the bacteria cell helps it stick to surfaces?
_______________________________________
5. Name two foods that bacteria help make:
_______________________________________
6. What does “decompose” mean?
______________________________________
7. What is the control center of the bacteria cell?
________________________________
8. What part of the bacteria cell helps it move?
_______________________________________
9. Where do Archaebacteria live?
____________________________________
10. To what kingdoms do bacteria belong? _______________________________________________________
Bacteria Review: Kingdoms Eubacteria (true bacteria) and Archaebacteria contain prokaryotes, cells without membranebound organelles. Prokaryotes are microscopic, and most are unicellular. The Archaebacteria are mainly found in extreme
environments like the deep oceans, hot springs, and swamps. The Eubacteria contain all of the bacteria that cause disease as
well the bacteria that are beneficial.
Nitrogen gas makes up 78% of Earth’s atmosphere, but it is in an unusable form. Lightning and some bacteria convert
atmospheric nitrogen into usable nitrogen-containing compounds. Plants use these nitrogen compounds to make proteins and
nucleic acids. Herbivores eat the plants and convert plant proteins into animal proteins and nucleic acids. Organisms return
nitrogen to the atmosphere through decay
Scientists today have developed genetically altered bacteria. Among them are strains of bacteria that eat up oil spills,
manufacture alcohol and other chemicals, and process minerals. There is, however, concern about possible risks to the
environment and the general population as genetically engineered bacteria are introduced.
Viruses are infectious particles made of a protein shell called a capsid, which contains either DNA or
RNA. The genetic material is single-stranded or double-stranded, depending on the kind of virus. Some viruses have
an outer membranous envelope which covers the capsid. These viral envelopes, derived from the host cell membrane,
may contain both viral and host cell lipids and proteins.
Viruses are not considered living organisms because they are not cells and they cannot reproduce outside of a
host cell. Viruses must infect a living cell, a host, in order to reproduce their viral genetic material and to make new
viral proteins. Like living organisms, viruses contain genetic material (either DNA or RNA), can reproduce, respond to
5
Georgia
Bio environment,
Standards: SB4. Students
will assess
theliving
dependence
of all organisms
one not
another
and do
the not
flow contain
of energy organelles,
and matter within
their
and evolve.
Unlike
organisms,
virusesonare
cells,
andtheir
are ecosystems.
unable
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
to reproduce in the absence of a host cell.
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
Further,
arebetween
able tothe
form
crystals
and still be eubacteria,
viable. Living
are and
notcontrast
able toviruses
survive
and viruses
function vary
six kingdoms
(archaebacteria,
etc.). cells
d. Compare
withcrystallization.
living organisms.
Virus Review:
Body Story: Flu Video
WATCH THE VIDEO AND ANSWER THE QUESTIONS.
1. How did the virus get into Holly?
2. How did the virus enter Holly’s cell?
3. What did the virus do once inside of Holly’s cell?
4. How did Holly’s body react to the invasion?
5. What were the symptoms of the flu?
Diseases caused by Bacteria
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cholera
Diphtheria
Leprosy
Lyme disease
Meningitis
Cat-scratch
Streptococcus
Scarlet Fever
Plague
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pneumonia
Syphilis
Tetanus
Tuberculosis
Typhoid fever
Salmonella
Rocky Mountain
Spotted Fever
6. How did Holly’s body get rid of the flu?
7. Will she get this same strain of flu again? Why or why not?
Virus and Bacteria Review
1- How are viruses different from other living organisms?
2- Sketch, label 2 parts and describe the basic structure of a virus.
3- What are the 2 virus cycle called? _____________________, _______________________
Circle the one that causes the cell to burst immediately.
4- Complete the following for Bacteria:
A. List three ways bacteria obtain energy (nutrition):
1.
3.
2.
B.
List and explain three ways that bacteria release energy from their food:
C.
How do bacteria take in food?
D.
What are some “roles” (niches) that bacteria play in the ecosystem? (GOOD and BAD things they do)
E.
List three human diseases caused by bacteria:
How do bacteria eliminate waste?
Georgia Bio Standards: SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 6
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
F. What is binary fission? _________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________Is it sexual or asexual? _______________________
G. What is conjugation? _________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________Is it sexual or asexual? _______________________
5.
What type of genetic material do viruses contain? _________________ or ___________________
6.
From question #5, which one mutates more often? Why? _________ BECAUSE ____________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________
7.
Why is HIV called a retrovirus? ________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________Example: _________________
8.
Should you take antibiotics for a viral infection? _______ (If you get this wrong, you automatically fail the test, so you better
look it up  )
9.
What does it mean to say that “bacteria are prokaryotic”? ___________________________________________________
10. What does it mean to say that “bacteria are decomposers”? __________________________________________________
11. List three human diseases caused by viruses: ______________________,___________________,___________________
12. What are 2 ways that bacteria harm you? _______________________________________________________OR
_________________________________________________________________________________________
13. Who discovered penicillin? ___________________________________________
14. What is gram staining? ______________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
15. What is a vaccine? How does it help you? _________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________
16. Why do you put your food in a refrigerator? _______________________________________________________________
17. Label the following:
Bacterial Cell:
Virus Particle:
Virus Vocabulary
1. Lysogenic infection
2. Lytic infection
3. Pathogen
4. Viroid
5. Prion
6. Immunity
7. Vaccine
8. Capsid
9. Host Cell
10. Viral Envelope
Bacteria Vocabulary
Question-Which
is bigger, a virus
or a bacterial
cell?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Antibiotic
Sterilization
Pili
Binary Fission
Conjugation
Endospore
Obligate anaerobe
Obligate aerobe
Facultative anaerobe
Eubacteria
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Unicellular
Archaebacteria
Flagella
Nonmotile
Prokaryote
Nitrogen Fixation
NOTE: If you get Nitrogen
Fixation wrong on the quiz, you
will automatically fail the quiz….so
you better know that one 
Georgia Bio Standards: SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 7
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
Virus and Bacteria Web Lesson
Introduction to Viruses
Watch the video clip and answer the following questions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Viruses are __________ and simple.
Viruses are ________________ to the human eye.
Once inside a host cell, what does a virus do?
Viruses are _____________ selective. Give 2 examples ________________________, ________________________
A viruses success over time depends of it’s ability to _________________________________.
DNA viruses change _____________, if at all.
RNA viruses change _________________. Give an example.
How Viruses Work
1. What does the core of the AIDS virus contain?
2. What does a virus use a cell for?
Disease Defense: Antibiotics
1.
Can you take an antibiotic for a virus? Explain.
2.
How do bacteria become resistance to antibiotics?
3. Do only human get viruses?
HIV Life Cycle
(click “Narrated”)
1. What types of cells do this virus attack and kill?
5. What does the enzyme reverse transcriptase do?
2. How does the virus get in?
6. Does it make mistakes?
3. What type of nucleic acid does HIV have?
7. What does intergrase do?
4. Besides the nucleic acid, what else is inside the viral
capsid?
8. How do the new viral particles get out of the cell?
Human Atlas: Influenza
1. How does the flu virus get into your cells?
4. What does a vaccine contain?
2. What are some symptoms of the flu?
5. Why do you have to get a new flu shot every year?
3. What cells in your immune system produce antibodies
against the virus?
Prokaryotes: An Overview
1. What are the 3 shapes of bacteria?
2. What are two differences between eukaryotes & prokaryotes?
3. What are 4 ways prokaryotes obtain nutrition?
5. What is an obligate anaerobe?
6. What is a facultative anaerobe?
7. How do prokaryotes reproduce?
4. What is an aerobe?
8. How do prokaryotes move?
Bacteria Conjugation
How do antibiotics work?
What is Conjugation?
What are the top to ways that antibiotics stop bacteria growth?
1-
Georgia
Biothe
Standards:
SB4.
Studentsbecome
will assess
the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 8
How did
second
bacteria
resistant?
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
2and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.
Bacteria Cell Structure
Label the diagram to the right
Click on “Capsule”.
What is the function of the capsule?
Bacteria: Beneficial Bacteria Video
1. Bacteria that live in ocean and lakes form the
bottom of the ___________ _______________.
2. Many bacteria are _____________________,
breaking down dead materials.
3. How are some bacteria in the soil helpful?
4. How are bacteria found in your intestines helpful?
5. What are some foods made by bacteria?
6. How did they clean up the oil spill?
Nitrogen Fixation
1.
Where is most of the world’s Nitrogen found?
2.
Can most organisms take the Nitrogen from there and use it?
3.
Who can?
4.
Where do the “nitrogen fixing” bacteria live?
5.
Why do you (and other living things) NEED nitrogen? (you may
have to look this up later)
Monkey See; What is
Bacteria?
Bacterial Nutrition:
Bacteria Cell Game:
Where does each type get its
energy?
1. How do bacteria reproduce?
1- Heterotrophs: __________
_______________________
2. Where do Bacteria live?
_______________________
_______________________
3. What are the three shapes of
2-Photoautotrophs: ________
bacteria?
_______________________
_______________________
4. What are some unique soucres
_______________________
of energy for the
4- Chemoautotrophs: _______
Archaebacteria?
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
5. Give 3 examples of Good
5- Nitrifying: ____________
bacteria from the video:
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
Georgia Bio Standards: SB4. Students will assess the
dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their ecosystems. 9
_______________________
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations,
communities, ecosystems, and biomes. b. Explain the flow of matter and energy through ecosystems
SB3. Students will derive the relationship between single-celled
and multi-celled organisms and the increasing complexity of systems. b. Compare how structures
___________
and function vary between the six kingdoms (archaebacteria, eubacteria, etc.). d. Compare and contrast viruses with living organisms.