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Classical Period Rome and the Rise of Christianity Review
Classical Period - period when river valley civilization evolved into empires
Post Classical Period - the period following the collapse of a classical civilization, Rome, Greek, Gupta, Han.
Golden Age - the high point of a civilization
Alexander the Great - Macedonian King who conquered most of the known world for the Greek Empire
Hellenism - Spread of Greek culture across the empire following Alexander the Greats death
Consuls - acted as the executive branch during the Roman Republic
Roman Senate - Roman elected Legislative body
Patricians - Land owners upper class
Plebeians - lower class
Julius Caesar - won civil war declared himself emperor for life. Was assassinated by members of the Senate
Augustus - first legitimate Emperor brings forth pax romana
Twelve Tables (tablets) - Roman Law
Pax Romana 200 year of Roman peace
Nero - persecuted Christians largely held responsible for the burning of Rome, Built the Golden Palace
Constantine - adopted Christianity moved the capital to Constantinople creating the Byzantine empire
Council of Nicaea - Brought together by Constantine to create a single holy book the New Testament
Constantinople - Capital of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire - Eastern Christian Empire
Peter - The first pope, Apostle of Jesus, Martyr
Paul - made Christianity a universal religion instead of a Jewish Religion
Dome of the Rock - Mosque on Jewish Temple Mount where Muhammad ascended to Heaven on a golden ladder
Western Wailing Wall - Holiest spot for Jews last part of Solemn Temple
Church of the Holy Seplecure - Church marking the spot of Jesus' Crucifixion and burial/resurrection
Key Concepts and Questions
1. Time period of Rome's Classical Civilization and Rome’s Mediterranean Empire 753BCE – 476CE
2. What is the major difference between River Valley Civilizations and that of Classical Civilizations? Empire
3. What was the Roman Republic - When Romans voted for senators as legislative.
4. What was the status Roman women? Rome was patriarchal.
5. Why (and how) did the Roman Republic Expand? Rome had a well organized and professional Army.
A strong and disciplined central Government. They built 55,000 miles of roads, aqueducts etc.
6. What were some examples of Roman flexibility for those they conquered? Rome did allow for self rule and
religious freedom, but you did have to adopt Roman gods
7. After over 400 years, why did the Republic fail? Generals had more power than the Senate soldiers
were loyal to their generals rather to Rome. Julius Caesar declares himself emperor for life
8. Explain the importance of the Pax Romana It offered 200 year of peace allowing for a great period of
prosperity and achievement.
9. How did the Roman Empire become a “commonwealth of peoples”? Roman achievements aqueducts,
amphitheaters, culture and law as well as Roman citizenship came to people Rome conquered
10. What were conquered people required to adopt as new Romans? Accept the emperor, pay taxes or
Tribute, adopt, roman law and gods
11. What would new territories receive as becoming part of the Roman Empire? Amphitheatre, Aqueducts,
Roads, culture law
12 Know Roman Achievements (see your spriite chart)
13. Know the reasons by Sprite for the downfall of Rome
14. What appeal did Jesus (of Nazareth) have for the Jews, slaves and the poor? Equality in Heaven
15. What were the basic teaching and beliefs of early Christians? A. Jesus is the fullfulment of Jewish
prophesy as the messiah or savior. B. Through Christ alone you get to Heaven. C. Religion is
monotheistic, D. Jesus is god: E. The Holy Trinity: father, son, holy spirit. F. Died on the cross to take
the sin of humanity.
16. Why were Christians seen as dangerous to Rome? 1. Chrisianity was a new religion, 2.Their leader was a
exicuted criminal. 3. They sought converts 4. their god was above the emperor. 5. The religion attracted slaves
and the poor in all were equal in the after life.
17. Why did Nero persecute Christians? To use as scapegoats for the burning of Rome, Which he then built
his Golden Palace.
18. What was the results of the Christian Martyrs faith and bravery? Martyrs like Peter showed faith and
attracted more converts.
19. Why were Jews accepted by the Romans? . their reliogion was older than the Roman Empire. The Romans
respect history. 2. Jews did not seek converts.
20. What led to the destruction of Jerusalem and the Jewish Temple in 71AD? A Jewish revolt or uprising
21. What caused Constantine to become a Christian? having a dream and vision of the cross the night before a
major battle Milvian Bridge. He ordered his men to put a cross on their shields and to fight under Christ. He
won the battle and became emperor
What political reason could Constantine have for creating a “universalist” religion? to unite an empire
that was very divided?
22. How did Constantine attempt to reform the Empire? legalizing Christianity and then adopting it as the
state religion.
23. Why did only the western half of the Empire collapse (by 476CE)? Constantine Byzantine empire in the
east kept all of the positive elements of classical Rome. Learning was encourage. Law and military
was strong. Constantinople was a center of learning and trade
24. Explain why the end of the Roman Western Empire lead Western Europe into a “dark ages.” Central
government ended. no law, army, protection, learning was kept in the church.
25. In what ways did technology and a central empire help spread Christianity? The apostles and followers
used the roadways, trade routes (Land and sea) and populated cities to spread ides.
26. When was the official year Rome fell? 476
27. Know the internal and external reasons for the fall of Rome. (see your sprite)
28. Know how the fall of Rome and its central government led to the Dark Ages:
No central law or government. No protection, Infrastructure decays, cities not safe. Church dogma and doctrine keep
lay people illiterate. Trade stops. People move from cities to the country for safety . Germanic Kingdoms pop up with a
government of feudalism
29. Know the Legacy of Rome how we use Roman ideas today? Roman law, Reprehensive government Roman
architecture as seen in Washington DC, concrete, arts, and science
30. What causes Migration? (Push Pull) Push = war, natural disaster, ISIS,
Pull = Opportunity, Jobs,
To Emigrate is to Leave,
To Immigrate is the destination
31. Know the elements of Classical Greco Roman Art and Architecture
Doric, Ionic, Corinthian columns. Pediment, Architrave, Capital, Frieze and Reliefs.
Art Paintings: Realism, movement, emotion light. 3D, Topic Wealth, Gods, Power, Pleasure
Imperial art showed Idealization of the subject, Godlike representations