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Transcript
EDU 330
UNIT THREE - Theories of Learning
(BOT Rules addressed in this unit include 2B, 3E, 3I, 4B, 4E, 4H, and 7A)
CHAPTER 6
Terms with which you should be familiar:
antecedent
applied behavioral analysis
classical conditioning
cognitive behavior modification
cognitive modeling
consequence
contiguity
continuous Vs intermittent
cue
discrimination
extinction
fixed Vs variable
generalization
inhibition
interval Vs ratio
learning - behavioral
modeling
neutral stimuli
operant conditioning
Pavlov
potency
praise
Premack Principal
Presentation Punishment
prompts
reinforcement - pos & neg
Removal Punishment
response cost
responses
satiation
self-regulation
shaping
social cognitive theory
S-R
stimuli
US, UR, CS, CR
vicarious learning
Objectives
1. Describe experiments that led to the theories of classical and operant condition and distinguish
between these theories.
2. Identify examples of classical and operant conditioning in your personal life and in the classroom.
3. Explain cases of human behavior using such concepts as reinforcement, punishment, contingency,
consequence, generalization, satiation, extinction, discrimination, Premack Principle, etc.
4. Describe the varying influences of different schedules of reinforcement.
5. Give examples of modeling and vicarious learning in the classroom.
6. Explain how you can use antecedents to help modify behavior.
7. Describe how the principles of behaviorism affect the classroom.
8. Tell how social cognitive theory is similar and different than behaviorism.
9. Give examples of how you might use cognitive modeling and vicarious learning in your classroom.
10. Tell how you could use the steps of self-regulation to reach your own academic goals.
11. Explain why some might have ethical problems with the use of behaviorism principles.
CHAPTER 7
Terms with which you should be familiar:
analogy
encoding
metamemory
attention
forgetting
mnemonic devices
automaticity
imagery
model
chunking
information processing
organization
cognitive learning theories
interference
perception
cognitive processes
learning – cognitive view
procedural knowledge
constructivism
levels of processing
rehearsal
context
long term memory
retrieval
declarative knowledge
meaningfulness
schemas
dual coding theory
meta-attentiion
sensory memory
dual processing
metacognition
situated learning
elaboration
working memory (short term memory)
Objectives
1. Contrast the cognitive view of learning to that of a behaviorist.
2. Explain how the information processing model works, and illustrate its process in a diagram.
EDU 330
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Contrast sensory, working (short term), and long term memories with respect to capacity and duration.
Give examples of cognitive processes and explain their role in learning.
Describe several ways in which memory strategies can be directly taught.
Use an example to illustrate the 3 stages of acquiring procedural knowledge.
Explain why two individuals’ perceptions of the same event can differ.
Describe several ways you can help make information meaningful for students.
CHAPTER 8
Terms with which you should be familiar:
cognitive constructivism
inquiry
reciprocal questioning
constructivism
Jigsaw II
scripted cooperation
cooperative learning
learner-centered instruction
social constructivism
guided discovery
real-world task
STAD
1. Identify the essential elements of constructivist views of learning - including the four characteristics
constructivists say permeate all learning.
2. Describe the implications that constructivism has for the teacher.
3. Give several suggestions to a teacher who wants to use constructive methods.
4. Explain how Piaget and Vygotsky differ in their views of constructivism.
5. Tell why a constructivist would object to a behaviorist’s method of teaching.
6. Explain how guided discovery, inquiry, discussion, and cooperative learning are constructivist
approaches.
7. Identify several characteristics of cooperative learning.
8. Describe 2 forms of cooperative learning.
9. Give an example of how you could use guided discovery in your classroom. How about the inquiry
method?
CHAPTER 9
Terms with which you should be familiar:
algorithm
elaborative questioning
characteristics
exemplars
cognitive apprenticeship
comprehension monitoring
concept mapping
concepts
critical thinking
drawing analogies
expert v. novice prob solver
general & specific transfer
heuristics
means-ends analysis
metacognition
positive & negative transfer
problem-based learning
problem - well-defined Vs illdefined
prototype
rule-example
situated learning
PQ4R
Objectives
1. Define concept learning and describe several things that can be used to facilitate concept learning.
2. Outline the steps in problem solving and list some general suggestions that may be helpful to your
students in solving problems.
3. Describe how experts and novices differ in their problem solving.
4. Describe how the constructivist approaches problem solving.
5. Contrast use of strategies to concept learning and problem solving.
6. Give some examples of study strategies you can suggest to your students.
7. Tell how you can help your students to think critically.
8. Keeping in mind the factors that affect transfer of learning, tell how you can help your students
transfer their learning.
EDU 330
OTHER
Terms with which you should be familiar:
aversive
intrinsic Vs extrinsic
contingency
massed Vs distributed practice
interference
overlearning
retroactive Vs proactive
rote Vs meaningful
serial position effect
Objectives
1. State what the case of Phineas Gage told us about memory.
2. Cite the manner in which the Penfield studies indicate that memories are stored.
3. Identify some things that the one-eyed cat studies told us about the interrelationships of the two
hemispheres of the brain in learning and when transfer between hemispheres occurs.
4. Describe the McConnell study, what he meant by incubation, and possible implication for learning.
5. List 5 suggestions mentioned in class for helping students process information for memory.