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Transcript

Name: ______________________________ Date: ______________ Hr: _____ Review for Test (Newton’s 2nd and 3rd Laws) Complete the review and hand it in the day of the test. Your bellringers are due on this day as well. Vocabulary: Define each of the following terms Acceleration Free fall Newton Equilibrium Inversely Proportional Directly Proportional Vector Quantities (list the 4 examples along with your definition) Newton’s 2nd Law 1. Calculate the acceleration of a jet car racing on the Bonneville Salt Flats if the force on the car is 500,000 N and the mass is 2,100 grams 2. Your bicycle has a mass of 9.1 kg. You accelerate at a rate of 1.79 m/s 2. Calculate the net force accelerating the bicycle. 3. On that bicycle (from #2), you travel for 5 min down a gradual hill. If your initial velocity was 2 m/s, what was the final velocity? 4. A whale is lifted into the air by a crane. The crane must exert an unbalanced force of 800 N to lift the whale from rest. If the acceleration of the object was 10 m/s 2, what is the mass of the object in kg? 5. The speed of sound at sea level is 761.2 mph. If a sound was traveling for 45 seconds, how many miles did it travel? 6. What is the change in velocity experienced by a ball rolling 40 m down a hill for 3 min at an acceleration of 2.3 m/min2? 7. If a car has no acceleration, can it be moving? Explain. 8. When an object is in free fall, what force(s) are acting on it? What the value of its rate of acceleration? 9. Using relationships described in Newton’s 2nd law, answer the following questions a. An object accelerates at 2 m/hr/s. If the net force increases by 4, what is the new acceleration? (assume mass constant) b. An object has a mass of 3 kg. If the acceleration doubles, what will the new mass be? (assume force constant) c. An object is experiencing a force of 10 N. If the mass doubles, what should happen to the force? (assume acceleration constant) 1 d. An object has an acceleration of 5 m/s/s. If the mass decreases by 3, what is the new acceleration? (assume force constant) 10. Draw a force diagram showing the four main forces on an object that is accelerating to the left with a net force of 10 N left. 11. Draw a force diagram showing an object traveling at a constant speed. 12. Draw a force diagram of an object that is traveling to the right and decelerating with a net force of 5 N. Newton’s 3rd Law 1. Identify the action and reaction forces in the examples below: a. A hammer hits a nail. b. Earth’s gravity pulls down on the moon c. A helicopter blade pushes air downward. d. You step off a curb e. You pat your friend on the back f. A wave hits a rocky shore. 2. If a car hits a wall with a force of 400 N, what is the reaction force and how large is it? Graphing 1. What does the slope of a position (distance) versus time graph represent? 2. What does the slope of a speed (velocity) versus time graph represent? 3. On the graphs below, identify the direction of travel and describe the motion (accelerating, decelerating, resting, constant velocity) of each object. Distance vs. Tim e Object A E 14 E 12 Distance (km) 10 Object B 8 A 6 D 4 Object C 2 C 0 -2 0 5 10 20 Object D -4 B -6 W 15 Tim e (s) Object E 2 Object A Velocity vs. Time North 10 B Speed (km/hr) 5 Object B F Object C C 0 0 5 10 -5 15 A E 20 Object D -10 D Object E -15 South Time (s) Object F Units Do the units below represent acceleration (a), force (F), velocity (V), time (t), or distance (d)? 1. cm 6. hr 2. m/min2 7. mi/hr/s 3. m/min/min 8. km/s 4. m/min 9. cm/s2 5. N 10. mi/hr ESSAY QUESTION For the essay question, you will be presented with three scenarios. Each scenario will apply to ONE of Newton’s 3 Laws. You will have to identify which law applies, tell me what the law says, and explain why that situation applies to that law. Practice using the scenarios below. When a rocket is launched, hot gas is pushed out of the bottom as the rocket is thrust upward. In order to have enough force, a karate sensei (master) must use his entire body's mass in breaking bricks. I was in a car accident where I hit the windshield with my head. I was not wearing my seatbelt. 3