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Transcript
Full file at http://emailtestbank.com/ Test-Bank-for-General-Organic-and-Biological-Chemistry-3rd-Edition-by-Raymon
Chapter Two
Multiple Choice
Section 2.1
Difficulty Level: Easy
1. Which statement is incorrect?
A. According to the atomic theory, all matter is composed of atoms.
B. Protons, neutrons, and electrons are subatomic particles.
C. Electrons have greater mass than protons.
D. Neutrons are found in the nucleus of the atom.
Section 2.1
Difficulty Level: Easy
2. Choose the incorrect statement about the proton:
A. The proton has the atomic mass of 1 amu.
B. The proton has the same charge as the neutron.
C. The proton has greater mass than an electron.
D. The proton and the neutron have approximately the same atomic mass.
Section 2.1
Difficulty Level: Easy
3. The atom’s structure characteristically has
A. the protons and neutron within the nucleus.
B. the electrons located outside the nucleus.
C. mostly empty space.
D. All of these choices are correct.
Section 2.2
Difficulty Level: Easy
4. Which of the substances listed below is not an element?
A. sodium
B. iron
C. air
D. carbon
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
5. Atomic number and mass number differ in that atomic number is the number of _____ and
mass number is _____ in an atom's nucleus.
A. protons/the number of neutrons
B. neutrons/the number of protons
C. protons/the number of electrons
D. protons/the sum of protons and neutrons
15
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Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
6. An atom of cobalt with a mass number of 60 has how many neutrons?
A. 27
B. 33
C. 59
D. 60
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
7. All atoms of the same element that have the same atomic number, but different mass
numbers are known as _____
A. Protons
B. moles
C. isomers
D. isotopes
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
8. The mass in grams of one mole of an element is the element's _____.
A. atomic number
B. atomic weight
C. molar mass
D. isotope number
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
9. Mass number refers to
A. total number of protons and electrons
B. total number of protons
C. total number of neutrons and protons
D. total number of neutrons and electrons
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
23
10.
Mg has how many protons, neutrons, and electrons?
A. 12 protons, 23 neutrons, and 23 electrons
B. 12 protons, 11 neutrons, and 11 electrons
C. 23 protons, 11 neutrons, and 23 electrons
D. 12 protons, 11 neutrons, and 12 electrons
12
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
11. The atomic number is _____.
A. the number of neutrons in an atom.
B. the number of protons in an atom.
C. the number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
16
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D. the number of subatomic particles in an atom.
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
12. Which is the proper notation for the oxygen isotope with atomic number 8 and a mass
number of 16?
16
A. O 8
8
B. O16
16
C. 8 O
8
D.
16
O
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Medium
13. An isotope of lithium contains 3 protons and 4 neutrons. What is the correct notation for this
lithium isotope?
7
A. 3Li
4
B. 3Li
4
C. 7Li
3
D. Li 7
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Medium
14. Two atoms that are isotopes of an element contain _____.
A. the same number of electrons and neutrons.
B. the same number of protons and neutrons.
C. the same number of protons and a different number of neutrons.
D. different numbers of protons.
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Medium
15. Which of the following is an isotope of iodine-131
A (
133
B (
131
C (
131
D (
131
I)
53
52
Te )
52
53
I)
I)
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Medium
16. An isotope of sodium contains 11 protons and 12 neutrons.
A. The atom also contains 11 electrons.
17
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B. The atom also contains 12 electrons.
C. The atom also contains 23 electrons.
D. There are no other factors related to the 11 protons and 12 neutrons.
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Easy
17. Atoms of elements belonging to the same group have an identical number of
A. total electrons.
B. energy levels.
C. inner electrons.
D. valence electrons.
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Easy
18. Which group contains the alkali metals?
A. 1A
B. 2A
C. 3A
D. 8A
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Easy
19. Which statement is correct?
A. Cr is in period 6B.
B. Fe is a transition metal.
C. Mg is an alkali metal.
D. Cl is an inert gas
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Medium
20. Arrange the following elements in order of increasing atomic radius: K, Mg, B.
A. K<Mg<B
B. B<Mg<K
C. Mg<K<B
D. B<K<Mg
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Medium
21. The periodic table of the elements does not list whole numbers for atomic weights. Why?
A. The atomic weights are not predictable.
B. The atomic weights include protons and neutrons at 1 amu each, but they also include
electrons, which weigh a lot less than one.
C. The atomic weight is the weighted average of the masses of the known isotopes of an
element.
D. The atomic weights do not include isotopes.
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Medium
22. Where are the metals located on the periodic table of the elements?
A. On the right
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B. Along the line between B and Al to between Po and At.
C. On the left
D. In the two sections separated from the rest of the table.
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Medium
23. The higher up within a group or family on the periodic table,
A. the heavier the nucleus.
B. the more the element is likely to conduct electricity.
C. the more nonmetallic in character.
D. the more the element is likely to be a semimetal.
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Hard
24. What is the relationship of a metal atom to the right of another metal atom in the same
period?
A. The atom to the right is usually the smaller in diameter.
B. The atom to the right is usually the smaller in atomic weight.
C. The atom to the right is usually the smaller in atomic number.
D. The atom to the right is more likely to have fewer isotopes.
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
25. How many atoms of sodium are there in 0.2 moles sodium atoms?
A. 6.02 x 1024 atoms
B. 6.02 x 1023 atoms
C. 1.2 x 1023 atoms
D. 12 x 1023 atoms
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
26. How many carbon(C) atoms are present in 30 moles of carbon?
A. 12 C atoms
B. 1.8 x 1023 C atoms
C. 360 C atoms
D. 6.02 x 1023 C atoms
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
27. The number of moles of calcium (Ca) represented by 7.39 g of calcium is
A. 40.0 moles of Ca
B. 18.6 moles of Ca
C. 0.184 mole of Ca
D. 296 moles of Ca
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
28. Iron has the atomic weight of 55.9. What is the number of atoms in one mole of iron?
A. 55.9 atoms
B. 1 x 1024 atoms
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C. 6.02 x 1023 atoms
D. 12 dozen atoms
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
29.
A sample of magnesium weighs 10 grams. How many moles of magnesium are there in
the sample?
A. 10 moles
B. 6 x 1023 moles
C. 60 x 1023 atoms
D. 0.4 moles
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Hard
30. What is the number of atoms present in a 20 gram sample of lithium?
A. 138
B. 1.2 x 1025
C. 1.7 x 1024
D. 4.0 x 1024
Section 2.6
Difficulty Level: Easy
31. Sulfur has __________ electrons and ____ valence electrons.
A. 16, 6
B. 32, 4
C. 16, 0
D. 32, 6
Section 2.6
Difficulty Level: Medium
32. The maximum number of electrons that a particular energy level n can hold is
A. n2
B. 2n
C. 2n2
D. n-1
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Easy
33. Which form of ionizing radiation is most penetrating?
A. alpha
B. beta
C. gamma
D. positron
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Medium
34. When a radioactive isotope emits a _____, its atomic number increases.
A. alpha particle
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B. beta particle
C. gamma ray
D. positron
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Medium
226
35. If radium, 88Ra , were to emit an alpha particle, what would be the other product?
A. beta particles
222
B. 86 Rn
222
C.
88
Ra
220
D.
88
Ra
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Medium
36. Scandium-40 enters into a reaction in which a positron is emitted. Which is the correct
equation for this reaction?
34
0 
A. 40
21Sc 21 Sc 1 β
36
0 
B. 40
21Sc 21 Sc 1 β
36
0 
C. 40
21Sc 20 Ca  1 β
D.
40
21
0 
Sc40
20 Ca  1 β
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Medium
37. Which equation below correctly depicts nitrogen-13 emitting a positron?
A. 137 N 136 C 01 β 
B.
13
7
N77 N  01 β 
C.
13
7
N146 C 01 β 
D.
13
7
N138 O 01 β 
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Medium
38. Radioisotopes with short half-lives are used in diagnostic tests because
A. they have high energy.
B. they are inexpensive.
C. they do not pose health risks by being present long after use.
D. they have less penetration ability.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Medium
39. Most elements have radioisotopes. What is a radioisotope?
A. An isotope that has a different atomic number.
B. An isotope that releases nuclear radiation.
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C. An isotope that releases electrical radiation.
D. Any isotope that can absorb nuclear particles.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Medium
40. What is the minimum protection against exposure to beta particles?
A. None, beta particles are of low energy and cannot penetrate skin.
B. Gloves, a lab coat, or over a meter’s distance from the source.
C. A thin sheet of plastic or metal.
D. A sheet of lead.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Medium
41. Gamma rays require a thick slab of concrete or lead to block them because they
A. have the lowest energy.
B. are so energetic that they have a very high penetrating power.
C. are large in size.
D. are small in size.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Hard
42. If one starts with 10.0 grams of a radioactive substance, how much will remain after 3 half
lives?
A. 1.25 g
B. 2.50 g
C. 3.33 g
D. 5.00 g
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Hard
43. Iron-59 has a half-life of 45 days. How much of a 50-gram sample would remain after 180
days?
A. 1 gram
B. 3 grams
C. 25 grams
D. There is no way to determine the results.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Hard
44. A 35 mg dose of iodine-131 with a half-life of 8 days is administered to a patient. How long
will it take for the iodine to decay so that there are only about 2 mg remaining?
A. 8 days
B. 16 days
C. 32 days
D. 64 days
HEALTH LINK
CT AND MRI IMAGING
22
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Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Medium
45. Whereas x-ray works well for bones, the value of a CT scan is that _____.
A. it provides a 3 dimensional view of bones.
B. it provides images of the inside of the body.
C. it provides a clear picture of gamma rays produced within the tissue.
D. it provides images used in studies, such as monitoring sugar usage.
HEALTH LINK
CT AND MRI IMAGING
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Hard
46. Whereas x-ray works well for bones, the value of MRI imaging is that _____.
A. it provides a 3 dimensional view of bones.
B. it provides images of the inside of the body.
C. it provides a clear picture of gamma rays produced within the tissue.
D. it provides images used in studies, such as monitoring sugar usage.
Section 2.9
Difficulty Level: Medium
47. The reaction below, which occurs with release of large amounts of energy, is an example of
a ________reaction
1
1
H +
2
1
H
3
2
He
A. fission
B. fusion
C. neutralization
D. electrochemical
.
Section 2.9
Difficulty Level: Medium
48. The reaction below, which releases large amounts of energy, is an example of what type of
reaction?
1
0
n +
235
92 U
137
52
Te
+
97
40
Zr + 2 1 n
0
A. fusion
B. chain
C. fission
D. precipitation
True-False Questions
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Medium
49. True-False: An atom contains 12 protons and 12 neutrons, and a different atom contains 10
protons and 12 neutrons. These two atoms are not isotopes.
23
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Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Medium
50. True-False: The isotope of hydrogen that is a radioisotope has a mass number of 3.
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Easy
51. True-False: Calcium is a transition metal as is indicated by its location in the periodic table.
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Medium
52. True-False: Emission of a beta particle increases the number of protons in an atom's
nucleus.
Section 2.9
Difficulty Level: Medium
53. True-False: In fission, an atom’s nucleus splits to produce two smaller nuclei, a number of
neutrons, and energy.
Section 2.9
Difficulty Level: Medium
54. True-False: Neutrons must NOT collide with atomic nuclei for fission to take place.
Fill In The Blank Questions:
Section 2.2
Difficulty Level: Easy
55. The element which is essential for human nutrition and is responsible for formation of bones
and teach is ______.
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Easy
56. The atomic number is equal to the number of ___ found in a specific element.
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Hard
57.
Complete the following table:
Isotope
Nuclear
Symbol
Atomic
Number
Mass
Number
magnesium-28
28
24
# of
protons
# of
neutrons
# of
electrons
12
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35
45
21
81
35
Sc
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Hard
58.
Complete the following table:
Subatomic Particle
Relative Mass
Relative Charge
0
-1
1
0
Location
proton
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Medium
59. Beryllium and magnesium can be predicted to have similar properties because they are in
the same ___ on the periodic table.
Section 2.4
Difficulty Level: Medium
60.
Given the following elements: calcium, selenium, and chlorine,
arrange the three elements in order of:
increasing atomic size:
_____<_____<_____
increasing metallic character
_____>_____>_____
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
61. The number of ___ is the same in one mole of sodium as in one mole of zinc.
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Easy
25
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62. An alpha particle is essentially a(n) _____ nucleus.
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Easy
63. _____ radiation is electromagnetic radiation much like x-rays.
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Medium
64. What type of radiation will be emitted in the reaction below?
97
40
Zr
97
41
Nb + ?
Section 2..8
Difficulty Level: Easy
65. The least penetrating form of ionizing radiation is the ___ particle.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Easy
66. The time required for one half of a sample to undergo radioactive decay is the _____.
Problems
Show all necessary calculations. Round answers to the correct number of significant
figures. Box final numerical answers.
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
67.
Calculate the number of moles in 2.61 grams of silicon.
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
68.
Calculate the number of atoms in 2.61 grams of silicon.
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Medium
69.
Define the term mole. Explain the relationship between mole and atomic weight.
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Hard
70.
What is the mass in grams of 5.82 x 1015 moles of Ba?
Section 2.5
Difficulty Level: Hard
71.
12.5 grams of gold contains how many gold atoms?
Section 2.7
26
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Difficulty Level: Medium
72.
Write the nuclear equation for the alpha emission of bismuth-210.
Section 2.7
Difficulty Level: Medium
73.
Write the nuclear equation for the beta emission of iodine-131.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Hard
74.
Technetium-99 is injected into a patient in order to monitor heart function. Technetium99 is a gamma emitter with a half-life of 6 hours. A patient receives an injection of 21
mg of Technetium-99 on a Tuesday at 9:00 a.m. How much remains on Wednesday at
11:00 p.m.?
a.
Calculate the number of hours and the number of half-lives that occur between
9:00 a.m. on Tuesday and 11:00 p.m. on Wednesday.
b.
Determine the amount of Technetium-99 remaining on Wednesday at
11:00 p.m.
Short Answer/Essay Questions
Section 2.2
Difficulty Level: Medium
75.
Define the term element. Give one example of an element that is a metal, an element that
is a nonmetal, and an element that is a semimetal.
Section 2.3
Difficulty Level: Medium
76.
Distinguish between the terms atomic number, mass number, and atomic weight.
Section 2.8
Difficulty Level: Hard
77.
Describe two ways to protect oneself from exposure to radiation when working in an
environment that contains radioactive sources.
Section 2.9
Difficulty Level: Hard
78.
Distinguish between the terms nuclear fission and nuclear fusion.
27
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ANSWERS TO CHAPTER 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
C
B
D
C
D
B
A
B
C
D
B
C
A
C
A
A
D
A
B
B
C
C
C
A
C
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
B
C
C
D
C
A
C
C
B
B
D
A
C
B
C
B
A
B
C
A
B
B
C
True
True
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
False
True
True
False
calcium
protons
57.
Isotope
magnesium-28
Nuclear
Symbol
Atomic
Number
Mass
Number
# of
protons
# of
neutrons
# of
electrons
28 Mg
12
28
12
16
12
Br
35
81
35
46
35
Sc
21
45
21
24
21
12
bromine-81
81
35
scandium-45
45
21
28
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58.
Subatomic Particle
Relative Mass
Relative Charge
Location
proton
1 amu
+1
nucleus
electron
0
-1
electron
cloud/outside
nucleus
neutron
1
0
nucleus
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
71.
72.
73.
family/group
increasing atomic size:
Cl<Se<Ca
increasing metallic character Cl>Se>Ca
atoms
helium-4
gamma
beta particle
alpha
half-life
0.0929 mol
5.59 x 1022 atoms
A mole is a counting unit that represents 6.02 x 1023 items. The atomic weight is the
mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance.
7.99 x 1017 grams
3.82 x 1022 atoms
210
83
131
53
Bi ---->
I ---->
4
2
0
1
He +
β+
206
81
131
54
Tl
Xe
74.
a. 38 hours= 6.3 half-lives
b. 0.27 mg
75.
An element is a substance composed of only one kind of atom. It cannot be broken down
into simpler substances. Examples of a metal, a nonmetal, and a semimetal will vary.
29
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76.
Atomic number is the number of protons in an atom's nucleus. Mass number is the sum
of protons and neutrons in an atomic nucleus. Atomic weight is the average of atoms of
an element as it is found in nature.
77.
Distance and shielding are two means of protecting oneself from exposure to radiation.
78.
During nuclear fission, large atoms split into smaller atoms. During nuclear fusion small
atoms join to form larger atoms.
30