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Transcript
Name
Date
Period
Compounds of Life Chart
C
H
O
Monomer
Important Information
Name and
Parts
monosaccharide  Found in potatoes, pasta, and soft drinks
 These are a main source of energy for the body, involved in
recognizing each other, and in the membrane structure of cells
 Monosaccharides – made of one sugar
o Fructose (found in fruit and honey)
o Glucose (a source of energy in animals and plants)
use for energy
Carbohydrates - A sugar or starch that living things
Compound Atoms
&
Definition
 Disaccharides – 2 monosaccharides bonded together
o Maltose, lactose (found in milk) and sucrose (table sugar)
 Polysaccharides – made of two or more monosaccharides
o Starch (how plants store glucose)
o Cellulose (dietary fiber in animals, component of cell walls
in plants)
o Glycogen (how animals store glucose)
Lipids - A macromolecule that is not soluble in water
Compound Atoms
&
Definition
C
H
O
Monomer
Important Information
Name and
Parts
fatty acid +
glycerol
 Found in butter, lard, and oil
 Provides a STORED source of energy for your body to use when it
needs it
 Triglycerides = 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids
 Saturated – solid (no double bonds between carbon atoms), animal
fats (like lard and butter)
 Unsaturated – liquid (like fish and vegetable oils), double or triple
bond between carbon atoms
 Polyunsaturated – many double or triple bonds between carbon
atoms
 Trans fats – unsaturated fatty acids that have been changed to
saturated fatty acids
 Phospholipids – have hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail, help to
make up the cell membrane (lipid bilayer)
 Steroids – contain four attached carbon rings (cholesterol, vitamin
D, and hormones)
Compound Atoms
&
Definition
C
Monomer
Name and
Parts
amino acid
Proteins - a chemical used by cells to grow and work
H
O
N
Important Information
 Found in meat, beans, eggs, nuts, dairy products, and fish
 Dipeptides – 2 amino acids joined together
Amino acids
have a central
carbon atom
covalently
bonded to
1) an amino
group
2) a carboxyl
group
3) a hydrogen
atom and
4) an R group
 Polypeptides – several amino acids joined in a string
 Are able to contract, become shorter or longer (like our muscles)
 Are enzymes that can bring about a chemical reaction in an
organism
 Provide support needed for hair, feathers, ligaments, and spider
webs
 Used as storage in seeds and eggs
 Used for transport (like hemoglobin transports oxygen in our
blood)
Nucleic Acids - A large macromolecule that stores important
(genetic) information in a cell
Compound Atoms
&
Definition
C
Monomer
Name and
Parts
nucleotide
H
O
N
P
Important Information
 DNA – contains genes, the hereditary blueprints for all life
 DNA has a double helix shape
Nucleotide has  Sugar and phosphate make up the backbone of DNA, nitrogen
three parts
bases make up the rungs
1) a sugar
2) a phosphate
and
3) a nitrogen
base
 4 bases are adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) and guanine (G)
pairs with cytosine (C)
 RNA – single stranded with ribose sugar