Genetics Review – Chromosomes and Cell Division 1. ___ Homologues 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ Diploid Haploid Zygote autosomes 6. ___ Sex chromosomes 7. ___ XY 8. ___ XX 9. ___ XO 10. ___XX 11. ___X 12. ___Trisomy 13. ___Trisomy 21 14. ___Birth 15. ___Karyotype 16. ___Nondisjunction 17. ___amniocentesis 18. ___Chorionic villi sampling 19. ___Mutation 20. ___Deletion mutation 21. ___Duplication mutation 22. ___Inversion mutation 23. ___Translocation mutation 24. ___Cell cycle 25. ___Interphase 26. ___G1 Phase 27. ___S Phase 28. ___G2 Phase 29. ___Mitosis 30. ___Cytokinesis a. Chromosomes similar in size, shape, and genetic content. b. Cells that contain two sets of chromosomes c. Cells that contain one set of chromosomes d. Fertilized egg cell e. Chromosomes not directly involved in determining sex f. Chromosomes that determine the sex of a zygote g. Male h. Female i. Male grasshopper j. Male bird, moth, or butterfly k. Female bird, moth, or butterfly l. More than two copies of a chromosome m. Down syndrome n. Age at which all eggs are present in a female human o. Diagram of chromosomes p. Failure of a chromosome to separate from its homologue q. Procedure used to remove fetal cells for culturing for fetal karyotyping r. Procedure for removing fetal cells for fetal karyotyping without culturing s. Change in an organism’s chromosome structure t. Mutation from a piece of a chromosome breaking off completely; often fatal u. Mutation from a chromosome fragment attaching to its homologue, copying certain genes v. Mutation from a chromosome fragment reattaching to its original in reverse order w. Mutation from a fragment reattaching to a nonhomologous chromosome x. Complete life cycle of a eukaryotic cell; repeating cycle of cellular growth and division. y. Collective term for the first three phases of the cell cycle z. First growth phase, the major portion of the life of most cells aa. Synthesis phase in which DNA is copied bb. Second growth phase, in which cells prepare to divide cc. Process during cell division in which the nucleus divides into two nuclei dd. Process in during cell division in which the 31. ___checkpoint 32. ___Cancer 33. ___Benign tumor 34. ___Malignant tumor 35. ___metastisis 36. ___Pro-oncogenes 37. ___Tumor-suppressor genes 38. ___Spindles 39. ___Prophase 40. ___Metaphase 41. ___Anaphase 42. ___Telophase 43. ___Meiosis 44. ___Crossing over 45. ___Prophase I 46. ___Metaphase I 47. ___Anaphase I 48. ___Telophase I 49. ___Prophase II 50. ___Metaphase II 51. ___Anaphase II 52. ___Telophase II 53. ___Independent Assortment 54. ___Genetic variation 55. ___Spermatogenesis 56. ___sperm 57. ___oogenesis 58. ___ 59. ___ 60. ___ 61. ___ 62. ___ 63. ___ cytoplasm of the cell divides ee. point at which the cell may or may not progress to the next step in cell division ff. Uncontrolled cell growth gg. Cancer cells that remain at the original site hh. Cancer cells that spread to other parts of the body ii. The spread of cancer cells to other parts of the body jj. Genes that stimulate normal cell growth and division kk. genes that inhibit cell growth and division to prevent abnormal cell growth ll. Cell structures of centrioles or microtubules involved in moving chromosomes during cell division mm. Phase of mitosis in which chromosomes coil and become visible nn. Phase of mitosis in which chromosomes meet at the equator of the nucleus oo. Phase of mitosis in which centromeres of the chromatids split and resulting chromosomes split. pp. Phase of mitosis in which a nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes at each pole. qq. Cell division that halves the number of chromosomes to form gametes or spores rr. When portions of a chromatid on one homologue are broken and exchanged with corresponding portions on the other homologue. ss. tt. uu. vv. ww. xx. yy. zz. aaa. bbb. ccc. ddd. eee. fff. ggg. hhh. iii. jjj. kkk. 64. ___ 65. ___ 66. ___ lll. mmm. nnn. Penicillium mold Australian ant Yeast Mosquito Housefly Garden pea Fruit fly Potatoes Plums Chimpanzees Corn Horse Adder’s tongue fern Frog Human Orangutan Dog 1 1 18 6 12 14 8 48 48 48 20 64 1,262 26 46 48 78 Put these in the correct order from subset to superset (smallest to largest): Draft Atom Molecule Amino acid Nucleotide Codon DNA Chromosome Gene Nucleus Cell Tissue Organ Organ system Organism Species Population Community Final Guess Ecosystem Biome planet Can you identify the phases of mitosis and meiosis?