* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Dictionary of World Biography OâNeill, Eugene Gladstone (1888â1953). American playwright, born in New York. Son of James OâNeill, an actor, he worked, during an adventurous early life, as a gold prospector in Central America, an actor and a newspaper reporter. He joined (1915) the Provincetown Players and not only acted for them but wrote and produced a number of short plays. He won the Pulitzer Prize for his first full-length play, Beyond the Horizon (1920), and also for Anna Christie (1921), a realistic drama of the water front and the regenerating influence of the sea upon the heroine. TheÂ Emperor Jones (1920) shows how a Negro adventurer reverts from ruler to savage, the title of The Hairy Ape (1922) refers to a powerful stoker on a liner, whose vain attempt to overcome his handicaps provides the theme. All Godâs Chillun got Wings (1924) deals with the problem of a black-white liaison in which the white woman is disabled, with which the black tries to contend. The much discussed Desire under the Elms (1924), dealing with a father-son conflict, was followed by The Great God Brown (1926), in which masks were used to symbolise characters. In Strange Interlude (1928), which lasts five hours, OâNeill tried another experiment with the âstream of consciousnessâ technique. Mourning Becomes Electra (1931) attempts to place the Oresteian trilogy in a modern context. From 1934 there was a gap until The Icemen Cometh (1946). TheÂ âicemanâ symbolises death and the play handles the touch of death on a group of waterfront characters. The posthumously published Long Dayâs Journey into Night (1957) is mainly autobiographical. These plays are the most important of a long series that caused OâNeill to be regarded as Americaâs greatest dramatist. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature (1936). Sheaffer, L., OâNeill, Son and Playwright. 1969. OâNeill, Hugh, 2nd Earl of Tyrone (c.1550â1616). Irish nobleman. The last member of his family to exercise independent rule, he was grandson of the OâNeill who, having submitted to the English king *Henry VIII was created (1543) the 1st Earl. Hugh OâNeill had an English education, remaining on good terms with England until he had had his earldom recognised and made his position secure in Ireland, where he aspired to rule all Ulster. This aim brought him into conflict with *Elizabeth I and after a long struggle (1593â1603) he was forced to submit, though allowed to retain his personal estates. Finding English supervision intolerable, he left Ireland (1607), and travelled throughout Europe, finally settling in Rome from 1608 to his death. The OâNeills had ruled turbulently in Ireland, with constant quarrels between branches of their own line and rival families, e.g. the OâDonnells, ever since the days of Niall of the Nine Hostages (d.405), from whom they claimed descent. Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh see Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike 632 Onsager, Lars (1903â1976). American chemist, born in Norway. He taught at Yale from 1935, developed the gas-diffraction method of separating U 235 from U 238 and won the 1968 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. His discovery of reciprocal relations in irreversible chemical processes has been called âthe Fourth Law ofÂ Thermodynamicsâ (*Nernst). Oodgeroo Noonuccal (originally Kath(leen Jean Mary) Ruska, later Walker) (1920â1993). Australian poet, born in Brisbane. We Are Going (1964) was the first volume of poetry published by an Aborigine. AnÂ active campaigner for indigenous rights, education and recognition in the Australian Constitution, from 1988 she was known as Oodgeroo (âpaperbark treeâ) Noonuccal (name of her tribe). Oort, Jan Hendrik (1900â1992). Dutch astronomer. A student of J. C. *Kapteyn at Groningen University, he worked at Leyden University from 1924 and was professor of astronomy and director of the observatory 1945â70. His model of the structure of the universe, as a rotating disc spread around a nucleus containing 90 per cent of all stars, published 1925â27, has been confirmed by observation and is generally accepted. He estimated that the Sun is 30,000 light years from the centre of the galaxy and takes 225 million years to orbit around it. Oparin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (1894â1980). Russian biochemist. Professor of biochemistry at Moscow University 1929â60, he wrote The Origin of Life on Earth (1936), which proposed (parallel with theories by J. B. S. *Haldane) that the interaction of sunlight on a methane/ammonia atmosphere could have led to the development of amino acids and â ultimately â cellular life, a thesis later confirmed by S. L. *Miller. An ardent supporter of *Lysenko and a party loyalist, winning the Lenin Prize five times, his star waned after *Stalinâs death. OphÃ¼ls, Max (originally Maximilian Oppenheimer) (1902â1957). German-Jewish film director. HeÂ worked in Germany, France and the United States and his stylish films include Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948), La Ronde (1950) and The Earrings of Madame de â¦ (1953). His son, Marcel OphÃ¼ls (1927âÂ ), an actor and director, educated in the United States, was best known for Le Chagrin et la PitiÃ© (The Sorrow and the Pity, 1969), a controversial documentary about France and the Vichy regime, not released in France until 1981. He won an Academy Award for Hotel Terminus (1988). Oppenheim, E(dward) Phillips (1866â1946). British author. He was one of the most prolific and popular novelists in the thriller and spy tradition, producing some 150 books and memoirs The Pool ofÂ Memory (1941).