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Dictionary of World Biography (from *Boccaccio), The Siege of Thebes (intended to be a supplement to The Canterbury Tales by *Chaucer, his acknowledged master), and a drearily prolix allegory,The Pilgrimage of Man (translated from the French). The satirical London Lickpenny, a shorter poem, gives a lively picture of the contemporary scene. Pearsall, D. A., John Lydgate. 1970. Lydia of Thyatira (fl. c.50 CE). Greek merchant and convert. A trader in purple, she met *Paul and *Silas in Philippi, offered them hospitality and was the first named Christian convert in Europe (Acts 16:14â15). Lyell, Sir Charles, 1st Baronet (1797â1875). Scottish geologist. A barrister, from 1827 he devoted himself to geology. After investigatory tours in Europe (1824 and 1828â30), he published Principles of Geology (3Â volumes, 1830â33), which had immense influence on the development of the science. Equally important was The Geological Evidences of the Antiquity of Man (1863) which gave powerful support, from the evidence of a different science, to *Darwinâs evolutionary theories. Further publications (1845 and 1849) resulted from travels in North America. Lyell was professor of geology at Kingâs College, London 1832â33, President of the Geological Society 1836, 1850 and President of the British Association 1864. Lyly, John (1553â1606). English dramatist and novelist. His best known work is Euphues a romantic ânovelâ in two parts (1578 and 1580). It is written in an amusing but rather affected (âeuphuisticâ) style, which *Shakespeare both adopted and parodied in several of his plays. His comedies were mostly written for troupes of boy players and probably for this reason have more delicacy and a gentler wit than others of the time. Lyons, Joseph Aloysius (1879â1939). Australian politician, born in Tasmania. Son of Irish immigrants, he became a teacher, then a Tasmanian MP 1909â 29 and Premier of Tasmania 1923â28. Elected to the Commonwealth Parliament in 1929, he was Postmaster-General and Minister for Works 1929â 31 in the Labor Government of J. H. *Scullin. He broke with Labor in 1931 following personal clashes and policy differences with E. G. *Theodore about combatting the Depression and, with the Nationalist Party, formed the United Australia Party (U.A.P.), won the 1931 election in a landslide and served as Prime Minister of Australia 1932â39. Fearful of the prospect of a World War, he was a despairing appeaser of *Hitlerâs aggression, faced a serious challenge from his deputy, Robert *Menzies, and at Easter 1939, under enormous stress, became the first Australian prime minister to die in office. His wife, Dame Enid Muriel Lyons (nÃ©e Burnell) (1897â1981), was the first woman member of the Commonwealth Parliament 1943â51 and the first woman minister 1949â51. Henderson, A., Joseph Lyons: the Peopleâs Prime Minister. 2011. 526 Lysander (d.395 BCE). Spartan leader. He won a crushing victory over the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami (405), and in 404 took Athens, thus ending the Peloponnesian War. By imposing oligarchic regimes in the Greek city states, he secured Spartan domination throughout Greece. He died fighting in Boeotia, which had become restive under the assertion of Spartan power. Lysenko, Trofim Denisovich (1898â1976). Russian biologist. He claimed that his experiments showed that acquired characteristics could be inherited and bolstered his presentation with âMarxistâ argument, hoodwinking both *Stalin and *Khrushchev. He persecuted the geneticist N.I. *Vavilov and was attacked by J.B.S. *Haldane. His theory is at variance with the genetics of *Mendel, and never found support outside the Soviet Union. Even there it was discredited after 1953, with some revival 1957â64. Joravsky, D., The Lysenko Affair. 1971. Lysimachus (c.662 BCE-281 BCE). Macedonian general. One of the Diadoche (âSuccessorsâ), generals who fought for control of *Alexander the Greatâs empire on his death, he became King of Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia. He was killed in the battle of Corupedium by the forces of *Seleucus. Lytton, Edward George Bulwer-Lytton, 1st Baron (1803â1873). English author and politician. Son of a general, educated at Cambridge, he inherited the Lytton estate, Knebworth, from his mother (1843) and added her name to his fatherâs. He wrote furiously, lived extravagantly, made many enemies, including *Tennyson and *Thackeray, but was admired by *Dickens and *Disraeli. He wrote 30 novels, mostly on historical themes, including Eugene Aram (1832), The Last Days of Pompeii (1834) and The Last of the Barons (1843). MP 1831â41, 1852â66, he was Colonial Secretary 1858â59. His only son, Edward Robert Bulwer Lytton, 1st Earl of Lytton (1831â1891), educated at Harrow and Bonn, had an unremarkable career as a diplomat, becoming Minister to Portugal 1872â76 until unexpectedly chosen by Disraeli to be Viceroy of India 1876â80. The unpopular Afghan War, which he helped to provoke, led to Disraeliâs defeat (1880) and his own removal. He became Ambassador to France 1887â91. He wrote copious poetry, now forgotten, under the name of âOwen Meredithâ. He called himself âa sensitive second rate poetâ (but he was evenÂ less).