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SI November 1, 2009
Nervous System Overview
1. Outline the progression of CNS differentiation starting with the three primary brain vesicles present after neurulation has
SI November 1, 2009
Nervous System Overview
2. Describe briefly the process of neurulation (neural tube closure). What are two disorders related to defects in
neurulation? What components of the nervous system derive from the neural tube, neural crest, and the lumen of the neural
tube respectively?
3. Describe the following: Gyri / Sulci / Fissures. Identify two important gyri and two important fissures.
4. Describe the following: Nucleus vs. Ganglion // Tract vs. Nerve. What is the one exception to the ‘ganglion’ rule?
5. “Decussation” is when information crosses from one side of the brain or spinal cord to the other. “Projection” is when
information is exchanged between brainstem and spinal cord, or deep brain nucleand cortical ribbon. What two major
anatomical areas of gray matter in the brain account for each respectively?
6. Review the difference between gray and white matter. Describe the gray matter / white matter arrangement in the brain
vs. in the spinal cord.
SI November 1, 2009
Nervous System Overview
1. A neuron in the right parietal lobe forms a synapse with a neuron in the left parietal lobe. In order to for this to occur, an
axon must travel through the:
A. Anterior Commissure
B. Corpus Collosum
C. Internal Capsule
D. Longitudinal Fissure
2. Dorsal Root Ganglion neurons are derived from:
A. The Caudal portion of the neural tube
B. The Rostral portion of the neural tube
C. Neural Crest Cells
D. Somites
3. Neurulation refers specifically to:
A. Neural Tube Defects
B. The process of neural tube closure
C. The differentiation of the neural tube to three brain vesicles
D. The development of dermatomes and myotomes
4. Neurons in the CNS are protected to a certain degree against hyperkalemia (excess Potassium ions in the blood) largely
due to the activity of:
A. Astrocytes
B. Microglia
C. Ependymal Cells
D. Oligodendrocytes
5. Bundles of axons in the central nervous system are called_________; collections of neurons in the central nervous
system are called__________.
A. Nerves; Ganglia
B. Nerves; Nuclei
C. Tracts; Ganglia
D. Tracts; Nuclei
6. The diencephalon contains all of the following except:
A. The hippocampus
B. The pineal gland
C. The hypothalamus
D. The subthalamus
7. Neurological activity can regulate endocrine secretions via:
A. Descending input from the cortex to the brainstem
B. The basal ganglia
C. The hypothalamic-pituitary junction
D. Input from the pons to the cerebellum
8. You definitely could not live without your:
A. Frontal lobe
B. Brainstem
C. Basal Ganglia
D. I-Pod
9. Surface area within the cortical ribbon is greatly increased due to which visible morphological feature?
A. Gyri and Sulci
B. Cranial Meninges
C. Laminated layers of neurons in the cortex
D. Myelination of Axons
10. Which two structures might communicate via projection tracts
A. The right temporal lobe and the left temporal lobe
B. The thalamus and the parietal cortex
C. The right parietal lobe and the right occipital lobe
D. Frontal lobe interneuron and another frontal lobe interneuron
SI November 1, 2009
Nervous System Overview
11. The lumen of the neural tube ultimately differentiates to become:
A. The spinal cord
B. The ventricular system
C. The peripheral nervous system
D. The alimentary canal
12. The most abundant type of neuron in the central nervous system is:
A.Projection Neurons
C.Ependymal Cells
13. What are the three primary brain vesicles at four weeks after fertilization?
A. Endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm
B. Telencephalon, Diencephalon, and Mesencephalon
C. Neurocoele, neural tube, and neural crest
D. Rhombencephalon, mesencephalon, and prosencephalon
14. The telencephalon differentiates to form the ______ and ________, while the metencephalon differentiates to form the
___________and _________.
A. Thalamus and Hypothalamus; Pons and Cerebellum
B. Cortex and Deep Nuclei; Pons and Cerebellum
C. Cerebrum and Cerebellum; Hypothalamus and Pineal Gland
D. Basal Ganglia and Limbic System; Mesencephalon and Myelencephalon
15. Motor tracts descending from the cortex to motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord will descend through the
brainstem in the following order:
A. Myelencephalon, Metencephalon, Mesencephalon
B. Metencephalon, Myelencephalon, Mesencephalon
C. Mesencephalon, Metencephalon, Myelencephalon
D.Mesencephalon, Myelencephalon, Metencephalon
16. Metencephalon refers to:
A. The Pons and Cerebellum
B. The Medulla
C. The Substantia Nigra
D. The Hypothalamus and Thalamus
17. Failure of the neural tube to close caudally will lead to:
A. Myasthenia Gravis
B. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
C. Anencephaly
D. Spina Bifida
18. What structure separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes?
A. Interhemispheric Fissure
B. Central Sulcus
C. Lateral Fissure
D. Post-Central Gyrus
19. The second largest gross anatomical component of the brain is the:
A. Cerebrum
B. Cerebellum
C. Pons
D. Thalamus
20. Nuclei responsible for tracking and reflexive responses to visual and auditory stimuli are found in the dorsal region of
which CNS structure(s)?
A. Occipital and Temporal Lobe
B. Mesencephalon
C. Hypothalamus
D. Pons