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How Do New Species Arise? 1. Indicate the difference between the linear and branching patters of speciation and give an example of each. 2. Indicate the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation and give an example of each. 3. Explain why adaptive radiation can occur so rapidly. 4. Explain how a change in chromosome number can lead to a new species; in which group of organisms is this type of speciation most often seen? 5. Describe the types of reproduction barriers that arise to prevent interbreeding between species.