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Chapter 26 Questions Vocabulary Quiz I: heterotroph, invertebrate, vertebrate, hydrostatic skeleton, exoskeleton, endoskeleton, gastrovascular cavity, cephalization, cleavage blastula, gastrulation, protostome, deuterostome, coelom, notochord, Vocabulary Quiz II: amniotic egg, therapsid, multicellular, nerve net, ganglia (ganglion), gills, open circulatory system, closed circulatory system, body plan, tissue, radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry, asymmetry, blastocoel, gastrula, 1. What three general features do all animals share? 2. What two groups are animals informally classified into? 3. List three ways in which humans depend on animals. 4. What are three advantages of being able to move around the environment? 5. Explain why many invertebrates are small. 6. What are two characteristics that all vertebrates share? 7. Into what phylum are vertebrates classified? 8. Are all animals mobile? Explain. 9. Why is an animal’s skeleton important? 10. Describe the function of the digestive system? 11. Describe the function of the excretory system? 12. Describe the function of the nervous system? 13. Why are the respiratory and circulatory systems important? 14. What are the two reproductive strategies of animals? 15. What are three types of skeletons? 16. How does a gastrovascular cavity of a hydra differ from one-way digestive system? 17. Describe the two different types of nervous systems. Be sure to include the common types of animals associated with each type. 18. What type of nervous system do jellyfish have? 19. What is the function of the respiratory system? 20. What is the function of the circulatory system? 21. List the two reproductive strategies and describe two advantages and two disadvantages of each one. 22. List two examples of animals that reproduce sexually, and two examples of animals that reproduce asexually. 23. Explain how the excretory system of an animal helps to maintain homeostasis. 24. What evolutionary trends in body structure do animals exhibit? 25. What characterizes early embryonic development in animals? 26. What types of internal body plans do animals have? 27. What two body characteristics gave animals a greater ability to move and to be more flexible? 28. What are tissues and what is an example of a type of tissue? 29. In terms of body symmetry, there are three types. give an example of an animal that displays each type. List them and 30. What are the three primary tissue layers? 31. What is the difference between a protostome and a deuterostome? 32. List and describe four key characteristics of chordates? 33. What were the key evolutionary innovations in fish? 34. What three characteristics that helped amphibians adapt to land? 35. What two major evolutionary innovations first appeared in reptiles? 36. When did birds evolve, and what were the first birds like? 37. When and from what group did mammals evolve? 38. What were early mammals like? 39. Why are amphibians tied to water, despite their adaptations to life on land? 40. What characteristics of Archaeopteryx were similar to the characteristics of birds today? 41. What characteristics of Archaeopteryx were different from the characteristics of birds today?