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Transcript
Fixing Fragments & Run-On Sentences
THE CCAC LEARNING COMMONS
Objectives
•Review the essential parts of a sentence
•Identify and correct sentence fragments
•Identify the two main types of run-on sentences and explore different ways
to correct them
Fragments & Run-Ons:
A Learning Commons Digital Workshop
Slideshow Instructions:
•Click the Speaker Icon
each slide.
•Click the Arrow Icon
in the Upper Left Corner for the audio track that accompanies
in the Lower Right Corner to advance to the next slide.
• – OR – Use the Right Arrow Key
back.
to advance and the Left Arrow Key
to go
•To control the volume, hover your mouse over the playback scroll and click the speaker
icon or use your computer’s internal volume controls.
What is a Sentence, anyway?
A sentence is a group of words that tells a complete thought.
•
•
•
•
•
It contains a subject and verb
It tells who or what the sentence is about.
It tells what happened.
It begins with a capital letter.
It ends with a punctuation mark ( . ! ? )
Example:
• The Steelers are going to the Super Bowl this year.
• Ms. Jones caught her daughter trying to steal a cookie before dinner.
Subjects & Verbs
 The subject of a sentence is always a noun (a person, place or thing). A gerund, or a
noun created by adding –ing to a verb, can also be a subject.
• Examples of subjects: the Grand Canyon, groceries, Alice, or swimming
 There are two types of verbs: action verbs, and linking verbs
• Action verbs are things that the subject does, like run, scream, or jump
• Example: The Steelers defeated the Ravens in last night’s game.
• Linking verbs (Am, is, are, was, were, be, being and been) connect the subject to
some information about it
• Example: The Steelers are the best team in the NFL.
Independent Clauses
A complete sentence can be an independent clause, or it might be made up of
multiple clauses. An independent clause is a group of words that expresses a
complete thought, has a subject and verb, and could stand alone as a sentence.
Independent clauses are the building blocks of compound or complex sentences.
◦ I wanted to mow the lawn
◦ The mower was out of gas
Multiple independent clauses can be joined together into a compound sentence
using either a comma + conjunction or a semicolon:
◦ I wanted to mow the lawn, but the mower was out of gas.
◦ I wanted to mow the lawn; the mower was out of gas.
Dependent Clauses
Some clauses are dependent—they
depend on being attached to an
independent clause to create a complete
thought.

 When certain words/phrases, called
subordinating conjunctions, are attached to
an independent clause, the cause it to
become dependent.
 Even if they contain a subject and verb,
these dependent clauses cannot stand on
their own as complete sentences.
I drove to the grocery store. (Complete, Independent)
After I drove to the grocery store. (Dependent,Fragment)
After I drove to the grocery store, I walked the dog.
(Complete)
We left for the concert. (Complete, Independent)
As soon as we left for the concert. (Dependent, Fragment)
As soon as we left for the concert, my mother called.
(Complete)
Good Complete Sentences
A complete simple sentence with subject and action verb:
The student completed her homework.
A complete simple sentence with subject and linking verb:
The student was confused by the assignment.
 A complete compound sentence with two independent clauses that each have a subject and a verb:
The teacher assigned the homework, but the students were confused.
 A complete compound sentence with a dependent and independent clause:
Although the teacher assigned the homework, the students were confused.
A fragment is a piece of a sentence

A fragment does NOT express a complete thought and is NOT a sentence.

A fragment is a group of words that does not tell a complete thought.

It is missing the who, or what, or what happened.

It may or may not begin with a capital letter and end with a punctuation
mark.
Fragments: Something’s Missing

A fragment does NOT express a complete thought and is NOT a sentence.

It may be missing a subject (the thing the sentence is about), a verb (the
action), or both.

It may be a naked dependent clause.
You get the idea, but not the
complete thought
What’s missing?
1. Every day after school.
2. An enormous, heavy boulder.
Source: writeyourbest.blospot.com
3. Although I arrived early.
How do you fix a fragment?
•
Be sure you have both a subject and a verb
•
Be sure your sentence expresses a complete thought.
•
•
If there is a subordinating conjunction (since, because, although,
when, etc.) and dependent clause, make sure the thought is
complete.
Example: Since we didn’t have any tickets, we didn’t go to the play.
Imperatives
An imperative is a command or directive:
•
•
Stop throwing paper airplanes.
Do your homework.
Imperative sentences ARE complete, even though it looks like the don't have a
subject. The subject, you is implied.
•
•
(You) Stop throwing paper airplanes.
(You) Do your homework.
A run-on sentence is
one sentence that “runs onto” another sentence
• It contains two or more independent clauses that are joined
incorrectly
• It needs either punctuation or a coordinating conjunction to be
correct
• Run-ons come in two flavors: the comma splice and the fused
sentence
• Some teachers mark them as CS and FS, while others simply call
them all run ons (RO)
Fused Sentences
 A fused sentence occurs when independent clauses are joined with no punctuation at all:
Grandma still rides her motorcycle her poodle balances in a basket on the handlebars.
OR
Grandma still rides her motorcycle and her poodle balances in a basket on the handlebars.
 Fix a fused sentence by doing one of the following:

Using a comma and a coordinating conjunction

Using a semicolon

Breaking the independent clauses into separate sentences with a period.
Fixing Fused Sentences
Fix a fused sentence by doing one of the following:
1. Using a comma and a coordinating conjunction:
◦ Grandma still rides her motorcycle, and her poodle balances in a basket on the
handlebars.
2. Using a semicolon:
◦ Grandma still rides her motorcycle; her poodle balances in a basket on the handlebars.
3. Breaking the independent clauses into separate sentences with a
period:
◦ Grandma still rides her motorcycle. Her poodle balances in a basket on the handlebars.
Comma Splices
A comma splice occurs when independent clauses are joined with only a comma and
without a conjunction:
The dishwasher is broken, now I have to wash the dishes by hand.
The comma on its own isn’t strong enough to hold the clauses together. Fix a comma
splice by doing one of the following:
•
•
•
Adding a conjunction after the comma
Changing the comma to a semicolon
Breaking the independent clauses into separate sentences by using a period.
Comma Splices
A comma splice occurs when multiple independent clauses are joined with only
a comma:
◦ I wanted to mow the lawn, the mower was out of gas.
◦ Grandma still rides her motorcycle, her poodle balances in a basket on the
handlebars.
◦ The dishwasher is broken, now I have to wash the dishes by hand.
Fixing Comma Splices
The comma on its own isn’t strong enough to hold the clauses together. Fix a
comma splice by doing one of the following:
1. Adding a conjunction after the comma:
◦ The dishwasher is broken, so now I have to wash the dishes by hand.
2. Changing the comma to a semicolon
◦ The dishwasher is broken; now I have to wash the dishes by hand.
3. Breaking the independent clauses into separate sentences by using a period.
◦ The dishwasher is broken. Now I have to wash the dishes by hand.
Review
• A complete sentence has a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought.
• A sentence fragment occurs when the thought is incomplete, and might be missing the
subject, verb, or both.
• To correct a fragment, make sure your sentence has a subject and verb, and that it
expresses a complete thought.
• A run-on sentence occurs when independent clauses are not joined correctly.
• To correct a run-on, make sure you use the appropriate punctuation and, if necessary, a
coordinating conjunction to join independent clauses together.
Thank You …..
If you have any further questions
about Sentence Fragments & Run-Ons,
your campus Learning Commons can help!