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Transcript
BROOKER 2/e Learning Outcomes
Chapters 1 – 60
LEARNING OUTCOMES
CHAPTER 1
1.1 The Properties of Life

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Describe the characteristics that distinguish living organisms from nonliving matter.
Understand the hierarchical categorization of living matter from atoms to the biosphere.
1.2 The Unity and Diversity of Life


Compare and contrast the three domains of life and describe how each may have acquired
traits of the other during early evolution.
Define and understand the concepts of genomes and proteomes.
1.3 Biology as a Scientific Discipline
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Describe the types of reasoning used by biologists.
Demonstrate how to formulate a hypothesis.
Explain the difference between a scientific theory and a hypothesis.
Give an example of knowledge gained through a combination of discovery-based
CHAPTER 2
2.1 Atoms




Understand subatomic structure, including how electron density affects an atom's ability
to interact with another atom.
Quantify atomic mass using units such as Daltons and moles.
Relate atomic structure to the periodic table of the elements
Explain the discrete energy levels in which electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom.
2.2 Chemical Bonds and Molecules


Compare and contrast interactions known as covalent, ionic, and hydrogen bonding.
Explain the concept of electronegativity and how it contributes to the formation of polar
and nonpolar covalent bonds.
2.3 Properties of Water
BROOKER 2/e LEARNING OUTCOMES
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Describe the properties of water that make it an ideal solvent for biological reactions.
Relate how the structure of water leads to hydrogen bonds.
Describe how hydrogen bonding determines many properties of water.
Describe water’s cohesive and adhesive properties.
Explain the relevance of water’s unusual properties for living systems.
Understand the dissociation products of water.
Explain the nature of acids and bases, and their relationship to the pH scale.
Understand the relationship between pH and hydrogen ion concentration, and explain
how buffers maintain a stable environment
CHAPTER 3
3.1 The Carbon Atom and the Study of Organic Molecules


Explain the properties of carbon that make it the focal point of organic compounds. 
Compare and contrast different types of isomeric compounds. 
3.2 Formation of Organic Moleculesand Macromolecules




List the four major classes of biological macromolecules.
Describe each biological macromolecule, and how monomers of each class are brought
together to form the macromolecules. 
Describe the relationship between functional groups and macromolecules.
Appreciate the variety and chemical characteristics of common functional groups of
organic compounds.
3.3 Carbohydrates

 Name the different forms of carbohydrate molecules.
 Relate the structure of polysaccharides to their functions.
3.4 Lipids

 Understand the structure of triglycerides.
 Explain how fats function as energy-storage molecules.
 Apply knowledge of the structure of phospholipids to the formation of membranes.

3.5 Proteins



Describe the possible levels of protein structure.
Understand the relationship between amino acid sequence and their three-dimensional
structure.
Give examples of several different proteins and the general types of functions they carry
out in a cell.
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3.6 Nucleic Acids

 Describe the structure of nucleotides.
 Compare and contrast the structures of DNA and RNA.
 Explain the functions of DNA and RNA.
CHAPTER 4
4.1 Microscopy



Explain the cell theory.
Describe various microscopic techniques, emphasizing differences in resolution and
contrast.
Describe the factors that limit cell size.
4.2 Overview of Cell Structure

 Compare and contrast basic cell structure between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
 Categorize structural and functional similarities in cells.
 Describe the organization of prokaryotic cells.
 Compare the organization of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
4.3 The Cytosol

 Highlight important structural characteristics and cellular functions of cytoskeletal
elements.

4.4 The Nucleus and Endomembrane System

 Discuss the role of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells.
 Describe the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis.
 Identify the different parts of the endomembrane system.
 Contrast the different functions of internal membranes and compartments.
 Evaluate the importance of each step in the protein processing pathway.
 Trace the fates of A) a ribosomal protein, and B) a secreted protein.

4.5 Semiautonomous Organelles

 Define the term semiautonomous, and outline the general functions of organelles that fall
into this category.
 Describe the structure of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
 Compare the function of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
 Explain the probable origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
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
4.6 Protein Sorting to Organelles
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Explain how sorting signals function in protein sorting.
Differentiate between cotranslational sorting and post-translational sorting.
Compare the different pathways a protein takes, depending on its sorting signal.
Describe how a mitochondrial membrane protein reaches its destination.

4.7 Systems Biology of Cells: A Summary

 Define systems biology.
 Describe a eukaryotic cell in terms of system biology.

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CHAPTER 5
5.1 Membrane Structure
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Describe the components of biological membranes.
Explain the basic principles of the fluid mosaic model of biomembranes.
Outline the properties of the lipid bilayers and associated proteins that compose
biomembranes.
List the functions of membrane proteins.
Explain the different ways proteins can be associated with a membrane.
Describe a transmembrane domain.
Describe the factors involved in membrane fluidity.

5.2 Synthesis of Membrane Components in Eukaryotic Cells


Describe the location of lipid synthesis in eukaryotic cells
Explain the process of glycosylation and proved examples of its importance
5.3 Membrane Transport
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Compare simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion.
Differentiate between channel proteins and transporter proteins.
Explain the movement of water by osmosis.
Differentiate between active transport and diffusion.
Describe the function of the Na+/K+ pump.
Explain the energetics of coupled transport.
Distinguish between endocytosis and exocytosis and give examples of each in living
cells.
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CHAPTER 6
6.1 Energy and Chemical Reactions

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Differentiate between kinetic and potential energy.
Understand the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics and describe how they reflect
the existence and behavior of energy in the universe.
Define enthalpy, entropy, and free energy, and describe how these concepts affect the fate
of chemical reactions.
Explain the energy requirements of endergonic and exergonic reactions.
Describe how oxidation and reduction are interrelated in chemical reactions.
Understand the structure of ATP and describe how ATP makes a wide variety of
thermodynamically unfavorable cellular processes possible.
6.2 Enzymes and Ribozymes

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Describe the importance of activation energy and how it can be altered.
Explain the various ways in which enzymes increase the rate of biological reactions.
Explain how cofactors, prosthetic groups and other aspects of the chemical environment
affect enzyme activity.
Define competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, and activation and explain how
each relates to the active and allosteric sites.
Understand the unique catalytic nature of and properties associated with ribozymes.
6.3 Overview of Metabolism


Explain the relationship between anabolic and catabolic pathways in metabolism and
describe the storage and release of energy in the forms of ATP and NADH.
Describe the three major ways cells regulate metabolic pathways.
6.4 Recycling of Macromolecules


Describe the mechanisms used by cells to recycle components of macromolecules and
organelles for use in the synthesis of new molecules and structures.
Explain how recycling of cellular components reduces the overall energy requirements of
the cell.

CHAPTER 7
7.1 Cellular Respiration in the Presence of Oxygen



Describe the distinct metabolic pathways used by cells to harvest the energy stored in
glucose under aerobic conditions.
Know the specific locations of these pathways in a generalized eukaryotic cell.
Understand the chemical relationship between the glucose molecules used by cells as fuel
and the carbon dioxide generated by the same cells as waste.
BROOKER 2/e LEARNING OUTCOMES
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Trace the path of high-energy electrons from glucose to water in aerobic respiration.
Describe glycolysis in general terms, including the molecules that exist at its start and its
end, as well as its net versus total ATP production.
Explain how the electron transport chain uses the high energy electrons harvested
originally from glucose to provide the direct source of energy used by ATP synthase to
make ATP.
Explain why the NADH produced in glycolysis and the NADH and FADH2 produced in
the Krebs cycle differ from one other in the amount of energy they provide for the
production ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.
Understand how proteins and fats are metabolized.
Compare the number of ATPs produced in the degradation of carbohydrates, proteins,
and fats.
7.2 Anaerobic Respiration and Fermentation



Compare the overall amount of ATP produced by the complete metabolic breakdown of
one molecule of glucose under aerobic conditions with the ATP produced from the
breakdown of one glucose molecule under anaerobic conditions.
Describe how the NADH molecules produced during glycolysis are oxidized back to
NAD+ under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and explain why this oxidation is
important to glucose metabolism and ATP production.
Describe fermentation in plant and animal cells and explain the importance of this
process in terms of energy harvest and ATP production.
7.3 Secondary Metabolism

Compare and contrast the various secondary metabolites described in the chapter.
CHAPTER 8
8.1 Overview of Photosynthesis

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
Explain the general reaction for photosynthesis in terms of water, light, oxygen and
carbon dioxide and carbohydrate.
Describe the balance between respiration and photosynthesis that sustains life in the
biosphere.
Describe the structure of the chloroplast.
Explain the difference between the light reactions and the Calvin cycle.
8.2 Reactions That Harness Light Energy


Explain how pigments are important to photosynthesis.
Relate the absorption spectrum of a pigment to its color.
8.3 Molecular Features of Photosystems
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Compare the function of the two photosystems in green plants.
8.4 Synthesizing Carbohydrates via the Calvin Cycle

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Explain how the light reactions generate ATP and NADPH.
Explain the molecular basis of energy generated as a result of electron transport.
Describe what is meant by the term ‘carbon fixation.’
Explain how the Calvin cycle produces glucose.
8.5 Variations in Photosynthesis

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Explain the action of rubisco in oxidizing RuBP.
Compare and contrast major variations in photosynthesis, including the conditions under
which these variations are most likely encountered.
Describe the path of energy from sunlight to covalent bonds formed during the light
reactions of photosynthesis.
Describe the path of energy from the light reactions through the Calvin Cycle.
CHAPTER 9
CELL COMMUNICATION
9.1 General Features of Cell Communication

Compare and contrast the five common methods of cell-to-cell communication.
9.2 Cellular Receptors and Their Activation

Describe the three major types of cell surface receptors, and give examples of each.
9.3 Signal Transduction and the Cellular Response

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
Outline the basic mechanism of different types of signal transduction pathways.
Explain the significance of kinase cascades.
Relate the function of second messengers to signal transduction pathways.
9.4 Hormonal Signaling in Multicellular Organisms


Identify the chemical nature of ligands for intracellular receptors.
Compare signaling through cell surface receptors with signaling that occurs through
intracellular receptors.
9.5 Apoptosis: Programmed Cell Death

Provide examples of programmed cell death that demonstrate the importance of process
in living organisms.
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Explain the relationship between cell signaling mechanisms and programmed cell death.
CHAPTER 10
MULTICELLULARITY
10.1 Extracellular Matrix and Cell Walls

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
List the roles performed by the ECM in animals.
Describe how the structure of a plant cell wall contributes to its function.
Compare the extracellular matrix of animal cells with the cell walls of plants.
10.2 Cell Junctions

Compare and contrast the types of cell junctions found in plants and animals.
10.3 Tissues


Define the cellular processes that create tissues and organs.
Provide examples of each tissue type in animal and plants.
CHAPTER 11
NUCLEIC ACID STRUCTURE, DNA REPLICATION, AND
CHROMOSOME STRUCTURE
11.1 Biochemical Identification of the Genetic Material

Describe the experiments that demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material.
11.2 Nucleic Acid Structure


Explain how the contributions of Wilkins and Franklin, Watson and Crick, and Chargaff
resulted in understanding the structure of DNA.
Describe the importance of covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds to the structure of a DNA
molecule.
11.3 An Overview of DNA Replication


Explain the results of the Meselson-Stahl experiment and describe the predicted results if
DNA replication followed the other possible models.
Describe the relationship between the structure of a DNA molecule and the means by
which DNA is replicated.
11.4 Molecular Mechanism of DNA Replication
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Outline the basic steps involved in DNA replication, including major differences between
eukaryotes and bacteria.
Explain how eukaryotes overcome the difficulty of replicating the ends of linear
chromosomes.
11.5 Molecular Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes


Describe the various strategies employed by eukaryotes to compact their genomes into a
nucleus.
Explain the significance of histone proteins, including their charge and amino-terminal
tails.
CHAPTER 12
GENE EXPRESSION AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL
12.1 Overview of Gene Expression



Describe the flow of information from the genetic material to a functional protein
molecule.
Describe the evidence for the one-gene/one-polypeptide hypothesis.
Distinguish between transcription and translation.
12.2 Transcription



List the sequence of events during transcription of a gene.
Describe the roles of the different eukaryotic RNA polymerases.
List similarities and differences between the process of transcription discussed in this
section and the process of DNA replication discussed in Chapter 11.
12.3 RNA Processing in Eukaryotes


Explain what happens to a pre-mRNA molecule during process of RNA splicing.
Describe the importance of end modification to eukaryotic mRNA molecules.
12.4 Translation and the Genetic Code



Summarize the experiments that revealed the genetic code.
Describe the characteristics of the genetic code.
Identify the relationship between codons and amino acids.
12.5 The Machinery of Translation
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
List the roles played by RNA in gene expression.
Describe the structure of a ribosome including the functional regions and explain how
they contribute to the process of translation.
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Explain the interaction between mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA during translation
12.6 The Stages of Translation
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Compare and contrast start and stop signals for transcription and translation, and note
relevant differences between bacteria and eukaryotes
Explain the elongation cycle of translation.
Trace the fate of a eukaryotic mRNA molecule from initial transcription through its
translation.
Compare translation on the RER and in the cytoplasm.
CHAPTER 13
GENE REGULATION
13.1 Overview of Gene Regulation
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
Identify several different reasons why a cell would regulate its gene expression.
Identify the point at which control of gene expression usually occurs.
Describe the usual action of regulatory proteins.
List differences in the control of prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene expression.
13.2 Regulation of Transcription in Bacteria



Account for the elements of positive and negative control in expression of the lac operon
in E. coli.
Explain control of gene expression in the lac operon.
Explain control of gene expression in the trp operon.
13.3 Regulation of Transcription in Eukaryotes
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Distinguish between the role of general transcription factors and activator and repressor
proteins.
Describe events necessary for Pol II to bind to the promoter.
Explain how transcription factors can have an effect from a distance in the DNA.
Describe how transcription factors can be activated by signaling molecules, and the ways
in which they can interact with DNA.
Describe how chromatin structure can affect gene expression.
Explain the function of chromatin remodeling complexes.
13.4 Regulation of RNA Processing and Translation in Eukaryotes

Explain how gene expression can be regulated beyond the level of transcription.
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Describe what is meant by ‘alternative splicing’ of mRNA and explain how the discovery
of this process lead to the rethinking of Beadle and Tatum’s “One Gene-One Enzyme”
hypothesis.
Explain how small RNAs can affect gene expression.
CHAPTER 14
MUTATION, DNA REPAIR, AND CANCER
14.1 Mutation



Define mutation and describe why cells have so many systems devoted to avoiding or
correcting mutations.
Predict the phenotypic outcomes of the various types of point mutations if left
uncorrected.
Explain why mutations that occur outside of coding regions of structural genes can
influence gene expression.
14.2 DNA Repair

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
Explain why DNA repair is critical for cells.
Describe the different forms of DNA repair.
Identify various methods cells utilize to repair mutations in their genomes.
14.3 Cancer

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Describe the role of a carcinogen in the development of cancer.
Outline the path of a cancer from initial occurrence through benign growth, malignancy,
and finally the death of the individual.
Compare and contrast oncogenes and tumor-supressor genes.
Explain how a mutation in a gene can lead to cancer.
Describe cancer in terms of cell cycle control.
List causes of cancer in addition to gene mutation.
CHAPTER 15
THE EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE, MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS
15.1 The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle


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Describe the structure of eukaryotic chromosomes.
Distinguish between homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids.
Name the four phases in a eukaryotic cell's life cycle, and briefly describe the events
occurring in each phase.
Describe the events that take place during interphase.
Explain the importance of checkpoints in the cell cycle.
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Describe the functional relationship between cyclins and CDKs and the importance of
these proteins in the regulation of the cell cycle.
15.2 Mitotic cell Division
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Outline the steps involved in the mitotic phase, culminating in the production of two
daughter cells.
Compare cytokinesis in plants and animals.
Explain why mitotic cell division results in two genetically identical daughter cells.
15.3 Meiosis and Sexual reproduction


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
Describe the events in prophase I that lead to the physical recombination of maternal and
paternal genes.
Compare and contrast the events of metaphase I and anaphase I of meiosis with
metaphase and anaphase of mitosis.
Explain what is meant by “reduction division.”
Compare and contrast the means by which gametes are formed by plants, animals, and
fungi.
15.4 Variation in Chromosome Structure and Number

List several different types of alterations in normal chromosome number, and describe
some medical conditions that occur as a result.
CHAPTER 16
SIMPLE PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE
16.1 Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance

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Explain the advantages of Mendel’s experimental system.
Evaluate the outcome of a monohybrid cross.
Explain Mendel’s principle of segregation.
Predict the outcome of genetic crosses by using Punnett squares.
Interpret data from test crosses to infer genotypes.
Evaluate the outcome of a dihybrid cross.
Explain Mendel’s Principle of Independent Assortment.
16.2 The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance



Outline the tenets of the chromosome theory of inheritance.
Understand the physical basis of independent assortment.
Compare the segregation of alleles with the behavior of homologues in meiosis.
16.3 Pedigree Analysis of Human traits
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
Describe how a pedigree is used to analyze the transmission of an inherit4ed trait over the
courses of several generations.
 Determine whether a particular trait is caused by the presence of a dominant allele or a
recessive allele based on pedigree analysis.
16.4 Sex Chromosomes and X-linked Inheritance Patterns



Differentiate between the major categories of sex determination in animals.
Describe sex-linked inheritance in fruit flies.
Explain the evidence for genes being on chromosomes.
16.5 Variations in Inheritance Patterns and Their Molecular Basis


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
Describe how assumptions in Mendel’s model result in oversimplification.
Discuss a genetic explanation for continuous variation.
Explain the genetic basis for observed alterations to Mendel’s ratios.
Compare and contrast the molecular basis for variations in inheritance patterns, including
relevant examples from the medical community.
16.6 Genetics and Probability


Understand the rule of addition and the rule of multiplication.
Apply the rules of probability to genetic crosses.
CHAPTER 17
COMPLEX PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE
17.1 Gene Interactions


Characterize polygenic inheritance, and specify how non-genetic factors can influence
observed phenotypes.
Explain how the expression of one gene could mask the expression of another.
17.2 Genes on the Same Chromosome: Linkage, Recombination, and Mapping



Explain why testcrosses might yield recombinants instead of parental types.
Describe how to calculate and interpret the map distance between two genes.
Explain how recombination frequency is related to genetic distance.
17.3 Extranuclear Inheritance: Organelle Genomes


Define extranuclear inheritance
Explain why the presence of DNA in organelles leads to non-Mendelian inheritance.
17.4 X Inactivation, Genomic Imprinting, and Maternal Effect


Compare and contrast X inactivation, genomic imprinting, and the maternal effect.
Recognize how genomic imprinting can lead to non-Mendelian inheritance.
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CHAPTER 18
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GENETICS OF VIRUSES AND BACTERIA
18.1 Genetic Properties of Viruses
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Describe the different structures found in viruses.
Understand the basic mechanism of viral replication.
Compare and contrast a lytic viral reproductive cycle with a lysogenic viral reproductive
cycle.
Describe how viruses can contribute DNA to their hosts.
Explain how the HIV virus compromises the immune system.
Describe the disease AIDS.
Describe potential sources of drug activity against HIV, and explain why common drug
treatments lose their efficiency over time.
18.2 Viroids and Prions



Explain the difference between a virus and a prion, and give examples of some prionbased diseases.
Describe the mechanism of prion transmission.
Differentiate between a viroid and a virus.
18.3 Genetic Properties of Bacteria


Outline the key features of bacterial chromosome.
Describe bacterial plasmids and list their functions.
18.4 Gene transfer Between Bacteria


Distinguish the various methods of genetic transfer in bacteria.
Describe how gene transfer contributes to the spread of antibiotic resistance.
CHAPTER 19
DEVELOPMENTAL GENETICS
19.1 General Themes in Development



List the four possible responses of an embryonic cell to positional information.
Compare the processes of determination and differentiation
Describe the role of transcription factors in animal and plant development.
19.2 Development in Animals



Describe the four phases of pattern development in animals.
Explain the importance of homeotic genes in development.
List the two special properties of stem cells.
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Describe the property of stem cells that makes their use in medicine so attractive.
Explain why the therapeutic use of embryonic stem cells is so controversial.
19.3 Development in Plants
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Describe the importance of early cell division to to the development of the plant embryo.
Explain the import6ance of the root and shoot meristems to the early development of a
plant.
Compare and contrast the development of plants with the development of animals.
Compare the role of homeotic genes in plant development to their role in animal
development.
CHAPTER 20
GENETIC TECHNOLOGY
20.1 Gene Cloning



Outline the steps in gene cloning, including predicted outcomes from successful versus
unsuccessful steps.
Explain the role of a vector in molecular cloning.
Relate endogenous roles of enzymes to their recombinant DNA applications.

Compare and contrast the construction of genomic and cDNA libraries.


Explain why DNA fragments can be separated with gel electrophoresis.
Compare endogenous DNA replication with sequencing and with the polymerase chain
reaction.
20.2 Genomics




Explain the difference between ‘genomics’ and ‘functional genomics’.
Describe the steps involved in in vitro DNA synthesis techniques illustrated in the
chapter (PCR, dideoxy sequencing).
Explain how DNA microarrays can be used to identify the genes expressed by an
organism.
Explain the value of DNA microarrays to biological and biomedical research.
20.3 Biotechnology


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Provide examples of medically important eukaryote proteins that are produced in
bacterial cells using biotechnology.
Explain how a human protein can be produced by the cells of a sheep.
Describe three applications of cloning technology.
Describe a genetically modified organism (GMO) organism.
Compare and contrast a transgenic organism with an organism that is the result of gene
knock-out manipulation.
Compare recombinant technology techniques in plants with those in bacteria.
Differentiate between gene cloning and reproductive cloning.
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CHAPTER 21
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GENEOMES, PROTEOMES, AND BIOINFORMATICS
21.1 Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes

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

Name the major characteristics and variations of prokaryotic genomes.
Outline the key features of bacterial chromosome.
Describe bacterial plasmids and list their functions.
Differentiate between clone-by-clone sequencing and shotgun sequencing.
21.2 Eukaryotic Genomes


Compare and contrast the major classes of DNA sequences found in the human genome.
Explain the essential characteristics of transposable elements and their relationship to
gene families.
21.3 Proteomes



Distinguish between genome and proteome.
List the categories of proteins in a proteome.
Explain how the total number of proteins in the proteome of an organism can be greater
than the total number of genes in the organism’s genome.
21.4 Bioinformatics



Describe the information stored in bioinformatics databases.
Explain where the information comes from that is stored in large databases use in
bioinformatics and computational biology.
Describe how a BLAST search might provide insight into a newly-discovered DNA
sequence.
CHAPTER 22
THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF LIFE
22.1 Origin of Life on Earth


Outline the four overlapping stages that are hypothesized to result in cellular life as we
currently understand it.
Describe the process of chemical selection, and its relevance in the theory of the RNA
world.
22.2 Fossils

Describe how fossils are formed.
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Explain the importance of the discovery of transitional fossils.
Explain the various biases that affect our interpretation of the fossil record.
22.3 History of Life on earth



Place the appearance of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms within the four eons of
geologic time.
List several environmental influences on the emergence and disappearances of species.
Trace the evolution of single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes through the different
eras and periods in the geological time scale.
CHAPTER 23
AN INTRODUCTION TO EVOLUTION
23.1 The Theory of Evolution


Explain how Darwin's personal observations led to his concept of biological evolution.
Describe how the species of Darwin’s finches have adapted to feed in different ways.
23.2 Observations of Evolutionary Change







Outline various contemporary observations of biological evolution.
Specify how the process of selective breeding has led to various breeds of domestic
animals.
Compare and contrast anatomical, developmental, and molecular homologies.
Explain the importance of the discovery of transitional fossils.
Name the evolutionary trends revealed by study of horse evolution.
Explain the principle of convergent evolution.
Explain the evolutionary significance of homologous and vestigial structures.
23.3The Molecular Process that Underlie Evolution

Describe several ways that a species might acquire new genes.
CHAPTER 24
POPULATION GENETICS
24.1 Genes in Populations




Explain the Hardy–Weinberg principle.
Describe the characteristics of a population that is in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium.
Outline the differences between allele frequency and genotype frequency and how each
contributes to the Hardy-Weinberg equation.
Compare and contrast various microevolutionary forces.
24.2 Natural Selection

Characterize the patterns of natural selection.
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Define evolutionary fitness.
Explain the different components of fitness.
Demonstrate how the success of different phenotypes can be compared by calculating their
relative fitness.
24.3 Sexual Selection

Explain why intrasexual selection and intersexual selection causes the evolution of certain traits
to occur differently in males and females of the same species.
24.4 Genetic Drift


Describe the phenomena of bottleneck effect and founder effect and explain how they contribute
to changes in allelic frequencies.
Explain what is sometimes referred to as "survival of the luckiest."
24.5 Migration and Nonrandom Mating

Describe how migration and nonrandom mating patters affect genetic variation in populations.
CHAPTER 25
THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES AND MACROEVOLUTION
25.1 Identification of Species





Distinguish between the biological species concept and the ecological species concept.
Define the two kinds of reproductive isolating mechanisms.
Describe the relationship of reproductive isolating mechanisms to the biological species
concept.
Define reinforcement in the context of reproductive isolation.
Explain how speciation might occur when populations are in direct contact with one
another.
25.2 Mechanisms of Speciation




Define reinforcement in the context of reproductive isolation.
Explain the possible outcomes when two populations that are partially reproductively
isolated become sympatric.
Compare and contrast sympatric and allopatric speciation.
Explain the conditions required for sympatric speciation to occur.
25.3 The Pace of Speciation


Differentiate between the two major concepts regarding the pace of speciation.
Explain the components of the punctuated equilibrium hypothesis.
25.4 Evo-Devo: Evolutionary Developmental Biology
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
Address several examples of how understanding the development of an organism has
helped evolutionary biologists understand ancestral relationships.
CHAPTER 26
TAXONOMY AND SYSTEMATICS
26.1 Taxonomy


Compare and contrast organisms from each of the three domains of life.
Explain why phenotypic similarity does not necessarily indicate close evolutionary
relationship.
26.2 Phylogenetic Trees




Understand what a phylogeny represents.
Describe the difference between shared primitive and derived characters.
Differentiate among monophyletic, paraphyletic, and polyphyletic groups.
Interpret or construct a phylogenetic tree, including cladogenetic or anagenetic events.
26.3 Cladistics




Explain why only shared, derived characters indicate close evolutionary relationship.
Demonstrate how a cladogram is constructed.
Discuss how a phylogenetic tree can indicate the timing of species diversification.
Discuss the differences in approaches to phylogenetic analysis.
26.4 Molecular Clocks

Explain how DNA sequence data can be used to establish the timing of evolutionary
divergence of species.
26.5 Horizontal Gene Transfer


Explain why horizontal gene transfer can complicate evolutionary hypotheses.
Explain why the "tree of life" is being replaced by the "web of life."
CHAPTER 27
BACTERIA AND ARCHAEA
27.1 Diversity and Evolution




Describe and compare the basic features of bacteria and archaea.
Explain classification methods for prokaryotes.
Explain some of the ways in which the Archaea are more similar to the Eukarya and
some of the ways in which they are more similar to the Bacteria.
Explain the evolutionary relationship between prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles.
27.2 Structure and Mobility
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Describe the features that distinguish different kinds of prokaryotic cells.
Distinguish the structural differences, and chemical and biological consequences,
between Gram positive and Gram negative cells.
Explain the different means by which bacterial cells are able to move
27.3 Reproduction

Describe strategies employed by prokaryotes to exchange genetic information and
survive non-permissive conditions.
27.4 Nutrition and Metabolism



Describe the different ways that prokaryotes acquire energy and carbon.
Explain in basic terms what happens when nitrogen fixed by prokaryotic cells.
Compare and contrast the effects of oxygen on the metabolism of different groups of
bacteria and archae.
27.5 Ecological Roles and Biotechnology Applications




Recognize the role of prokaryotes in the global cycling of elements.
Describe examples of bacterial/eukaryote symbiosis.
Explain how bacteria can be used for bioremediation.
List some ways in which prokaryotes contribute to modern biotechnology application
CHAPTER 28
PROTISTS
28.1 An Introduction to Protists


Describe how protists can be distinguished by their ecological roles, habitats, and
motility.
List the three main means of locomotion used by protists.
28.2 Evolution and relationships




Explain the need for the classification known as the "supergroup" with respect to protists.
Define endosymbiosis and explain how it relates to the evolution of protists
Outline different methods of plastid acquisition.
List seven supergroups of protists and name a distinguishing feature for each that sets it
apart from the others
28.3 Nutritional and Defensive Mechanisms

Compare and contrast the different nutritional strategies among the protists.
28.4 Reproductive Adaptations
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Characterize the various reproductive strategies employed by protists.
Describe the life cycle of the parasitic protist, Plasmodium falciparum, and explain its
importance to world health.
CHAPTER 29
PLANTS AND THE CONQUEST OF LAND
29.1 Ancestry and Diversity of Modern Plants




Explain the relationship between the different algae clades and plants.
List the plant phyla and briefly differentiate among the phyla.
Compare and contrast nonvascular and vascular plants, identifying characteristic
structures and features where appropriate.
Differentiate between the sporophyte and gametophyte generations in plant life cycles.
29.2 An Evolutionary History of Land Plants


Explain why charophyceans are considered the closest relatives of land plants.
Describe the characteristic features and evolutionary importance of seedless plants to
Earth’s ecology.
29.3 The Origin and Evolutionary Importance of the Plant Embryo


Describe the characteristic features of plant embryos.
Explain why a physiological connection between the sporophyte and plant embryo
provides evolutionary advantage.
29.4 The Origin and evolutionary Importance of Leaves and Seeds


Trace the evolutionary origin of leaves and seeds, pointing out selective advantages of
each intermediate step/form.
List the evolutionary advantages of seeds.
CHAPTER 30
THE EVOLUTION AND DIVERSITY OF MODERN
GYMNOSPERMS AND ANGIOSPERMS
30.1 Overview of the Seed Plants

List the major characteristics shared by all seed plants and explain the advantages of
each.
30.2 The Evolution and Diversity of the Modern Gymnosperms


Describe the distinguishing features of a gymnosperm.
Compare and contrast the four groups of existing gymnosperms, and describe a typical
gymnosperm reproductive cycle.
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30.3 The Evolution and Diversity of the Modern Angiosperms






Describe the distinguishing features of a angiosperm.
Outline the basic structure of a flower, describing differences in various angiosperm
flowers.
Trace a typical flowering plant reproductive cycle.
Describe various fruits and how each is customized for maximum seed dispersal.
Describe the roles of some animals in the angiosperm life cycle.
List the classes of secondary metabolites and their importance in human culture.
30.4 The Role of Coevolution in Angiosperm Diversification


Explain how the evolution of one species can influence the evolution of another.
List examples of plant and animal features that are the result of coevolution.
30.5 Human Influences on Angiosperm Diversification

Provide examples of how humans have influenced, positively and/or negatively, plant
species.
CHAPTER 31
FUNGI
31.1 Evolutionary Relationships and Distinctive Features of Fungi



Explain how cellular structure in fungi influences their growth processes.
Compare mitosis in fungi and animals.
List characteristics of fungi that show their close evolutionary relationship to animals.
31.2 Fungal Asexual and Sexual Reproduction


Differentiate among various reproduction strategies in fungi.
Compare the reproductive strategy of a unicellular yeast fungi with that of a fungus that
forms a mushroom.
31.3 Fungal Ecology and Biotechnology


Compare and contrast the different ecological associations that fungi develop with other
organisms.
Describe some common uses of fungi in biotechnology.
31.4 Diversity of Fungi

Summarize the unique and relevant characteristics of the five fungal phyla.
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AN INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL DIVERSITY
32.1 Characteristics of Animals


List the main characteristics shared by all members of the animal kingdom.
Explain the three reasons proposed to account for the rapid increase in animal species
during the Cambrian explosion
32.2 Traditional Classification of Animals




Explain the traditional basis of animal classification based on body plans.
Explain the difference between radial and bilateral symmetry and give examples of an
animals that display these two body plans.
Differentiate between a coelom and a pseudocoelom.
Describe the advantages of segmentation.
32.3 Molecular Views of Animal Diversity




Explain the molecular basis of animal classification based on sequence data.
Provide examples of how the traditional and molecular approaches to classification have
yielded similar and/or different results.
Describe the possible role of Hox genes in the Cambrian explosion.
Compare and contrast multiple characteristics within the various animal phyla.
CHAPTER 33
THE INVERTEBRATES
33.1 Parazoa: The First Multicellular Animals
 Describe the different types of cells in the sponge body.
 Explain the function of choanocytes.
33.2 Radiata: Jellyfish and Other Radially Symmetrical Animals




Compare and contrast the sponges with the radiates.
Compare the two body forms of cnidarians
Explain the function of cnidocytes.
Differentiate between cnidarians and ctenophores.
33.3 Lophotrochozoa: The Flatworms, Rotifers, Lophophorates, Mollusks, and Annelids




Compare the embryonic tissues of lophotrochozoa with those of Parazoa and Radiata.
Explain why these groups of protostomes are no longer classified based on the presence
or absence of a coelom or pseudocoelom.
Describe representatives of the four best-known groups of mollusks.
Explain how segmentation in annelid worms facilitates locomotion and specialization of
different parts of the organism.
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33.4 Ecdysozoa: The Nematodes and Arthropods







Describe the process of ecdysis and its importance of a cuticle to these organisms.
List the distinguishing characteristics of nematodes.
Explain why some nematode species are importance health concerns.
Name the key features of arthropods.
List the four extant classes of arthropods and a characteristic that distinguishes them from
one another.
Describe the advantages and drawbacks of an exoskeleton.
Illustrate the difference between complete and incomplete metamorphosis.
33.5 Deuterostomia: The Echinoderms and Chordates



Explain what is meant by pentaradial symmetry.
Describe the five extant classes of echinoderms.
List and describe the characteristics of chordates that distinguish them from other animal
classifications.
CHAPTER 34
THE VERTEBRATES
34.1 The Craniates: Chordates with a Head

List the defining features that separate craniates from other invertebrate chordates.
34.2 Vertebrates: Craniates with a Backbone

List the defining features that separate vertebrates from other chordates.
34.3 Gnathostomes: Jawed Vertebrates



Explain how the presence of hinged jaws was likely to contribute to the evolutionary
success of this group of vertebrates.
Describe the major groups of fishes.
List the evolutionary innovations of fishes.
34.4 Tetrapods: Gnathostomes with Four Limbs


Provide examples of how amphibians are intermediates between aquatic and terrestrial
animals.
Describe the characteristics and major groups of amphibians.
34.5 Amniotes: Tetrapods with a Desiccation-Resistant Egg


Explain the significance of the evolution of the amniotic egg.
Describe the major changes that permitted some animals to become fully terrestrial.
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Describe the characteristics and major groups of reptiles.
Explain why birds are thought to have evolved from small feathered dinosaurs.
34.6 Mammals: Milk-Producing Amniotes




Describe the distinguishing characteristics of mammals, as well as other structural
characteristics found in some species of mammals but not others.
List the distinguishing characteristics of primates.
Describe the characteristics and major groups of primates.
Discuss the possible origins of Homo sapiens and the differences between H. sapiens and
other species in the Homo genus.
CHAPTER 35
AN INTRODUCTION TO FLOWERING PLANT FORM AND
FUNCTION
35.1 From Seed to Seed - The Life of a Flowering Plant






Explain the importance of the sporophyte and gametophyte stages in the life cycle of a
flowering plant.
Differentiate between the process of growth and development in the life of an organism.
Name the three types of organs in a plant.
Describe the function of the shoot and root system of a flowering plant.
Diagram the development of primary tissues into various plant organs and organ systems.
Explain the difference between monocot and eudicot plants.
35.2 How Plants Grow and Develop



Describe the importance of radial symmetry and the apical-basil polarity in plant growth
and development
Explain what a meristem is and describe how meristems contribute to the primary and
secondary growth of a plant.
List the three types of tissue produced by apical meristems and describe the function of
each.
35.3 The Shoot System: Stem and Leaf Adaptations






Describe the modular structure and growth patterns of plant shoot systems.
Distinguish between xylem and phloem.
List various leaf shapes and features, describing the advantages and disadvantages of
each.
List the potential products of an axillary bud.
Distinguish between a simple and a compound leaf, and between a pinnately and
palmately compound leaf.
Compare and contrast primary and secondary vascular systems.
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35.4 Root System Adaptations




Compare the three main kinds of root systems found in monocots and eudicots.
Describe the three zones of a typical root.
Explain the function of root hairs.
Explain how modifications to typical root structures provide selective advantages for
some plants.
CHAPTER 36
FLOWERING PLANTS: BEHAVIOR
36.1 Overview of Plant Behavioral Responses




Differentiate between plant responses to internal and external stimuli.
Define signal transduction.
List potential environmental queues that could trigger signal transduction event in a plant
cell.
Provide examples of cellular responses to external stimuli that would activate a signal
transduction pathway
36.2 Plant Hormones





Discuss properties of hormones.
List and briefly describe the action of the major classes of plant hormones.
Compare auxins with cytokinins.
Describe the major roles of abscisic acid.
Describe the major roles of gibberellins and ethytlene
36.3 Plant Responses to Environmental Stimuli










Compare the pigments phytochrome and chlorophyll.
Compare and contrast phototropism and photoperiodism, including the receptor
molecules involved in each.
Identify the structures in cells that perceive gravity.
Explain how stems and roots bend in response to gravity.
Describe how plants respond to extremes of moisture and temperature.
Explain how plants use, secondary metabolites, and enlist the help of animals to deter
herbivore attack.
Explain the role of jasmonic acid in plant defense reponses.
Describe the gene-for-gene hypothesis.
Define systemic acquired resistance.
Explain how a hypersensitive response can lead to systemic acquired resistance.
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FLOWERING PLANTS: NUTRITION
37.1 Plant Nutritional Requirements


List the major types of plant nutrients and their typical sources.
Describe plant adaptations to varying amounts of light and/or carbon dioxide.
37.2 The Role of Soil in Plant Nutrition







Distinguish between macronutrients and micronutrients.
Describe the contents and function of the organic constituents of soil.
Describe the contents and function of the inorganic constituents of soil.
Explain how the charge of soil particles can affect the relative balance of positively and
negatively charged molecules and ions in the soil water.
Explain the processes of nitrogen fixation and nitrate utilization.
Provide pros and cons for the use of inorganic fertilizer in soil.
Define phytoremediation.
37.3 Biological Sources of Plant Nutrients



Explain how mycorrhizal fungi benefit plants.
Explain the significance of nitrogen-fixing bacteria for plant nutrition.
Characterize and provide examples of several different ways in which plants obtain
nutrients through symbiotic, predatory, or parasitic methods.
CHAPTER 38
FLOWERING PLANTS: TRANSPORT
38.1 Overview of Plant Transport

Name the two types of conducting tissues of vascular plants and list the materials
transported by each.
38.2 Uptake and Movement of Materials at the Cellular Level



Compare and contrast passive diffusion and active transport, and explain how each is
relevant in the movement of water and nutrients in plants.
Explain how to predict the direction of movement of water based on water potential.
Explain the function of root hairs.
38.3 Tissue-Level Transport


Describe the three major forms of tissue-level transport, including advantages,
disadvantages, and limitations of each.
Describe the function of Casparian strips.
38.4 Long-Distance transport
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Describe the environmental conditions in which guttation occurs.
Understand the process of transpiration, its importance, and the mechanism by which it is
accomplished.
List the properties of water that make transpiration possible.
Describe the relevant adaptations of plants native to cold, dry, or saline environments.
Explain the importance of leaf abscission.
Define translocation
Characterize the mechanisms for carrying out movement of nutrients and minerals
through xylem and phloem over long distances.
CHAPTER 39
FLOWERING PLANTS: REPRODUCTION
39.1 An Overview of Flowering Plant reproduction



Outline the life cycle of a flowering plant.
Explain what is meant by “alternation of generations” in the life cycle of a plant.
Describe the roles of sporophytes and gametophytes in the life cycle of a plant.
39.2 Flower Production, Structure, and Development






List the organs present in a flower.
Describe the functions of the organs present in a flower.
List the physical characteristics of flower structure that vary from species to species.
Explain the functional importance of flower structure to the reproductive success of a
plant.
Describe the means by which the development of flower shoots is activated.
Name the four genetically regulated flowering pathways.
39.3 Male and Female Gametophytes and Double Fertilization



Explain the difference between microgametophytes and megagametophytes.
Describe the physical relationship between pollen grains and sperm cells and between
ovules and egg cells.
List the products of double fertilization.
39.4 Embryo, Seed, Fruit, and Seedling Development







Describe the importance of the two products that result from the unequal division of the
plant zygote.
Explain the structural and functional relationships between flower, seed and fruit.
Explain the structural and functional relationships between seed, embryo, and endosperm.
Describe the factors that control seed germination.
List the advantages provided by seeds to the reproductive success of a plant.
Explain the roles of the cotyledon, hypocotyl, and radical in seedling development.
Outline the steps of angiosperm development from pollination through early seedling
development.
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39.5 Asexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants





List advantages to asexual reproduction in flowering plants.
Describe the three mechanisms of asexual reproduction in flowering plants
List examples of plant parts involved in vegetative reproduction.
Describe the process of somatic embryogenesis.
Compare seed production by apomictic plants to that of plants that rely on fertilization.
CHAPTER 40
INTRODUCTION TO ANIMAL FORM AND FUNCTION
40.1 Organization of Animal Bodies




Classify the different categories of animal tissue, providing general functions and specific
examples of each.
Describe the structural relationship between cells and tissues, tissues and organs, and
organs and organ systems.
Name the various organ systems found in many animals, list the components of each and
describe their functions.
List the different compartments in which where fluids are found in the body of an animal
40.2 The Relationship Between Form and Function




Explain the relationship between form and function and provide several examples of
anatomical structures that demonstrate this relationship.
Describe the importance of surface area to volume ratio when considering transport of
substances into and out of cells and organisms.
Explain the importance of amplified surface are to the absorption of substances by cells,
tissues and organs.
List examples of anatomical structures that rely on amplified surface area to perform their
function.
40.3 Homeostasis





Compare conforming and regulating as responses to changes in environment.
List several homeostatic variables that are regulated in vertebrate animals.
Name the four components of a homeostatic control system and describe the importance
of each to the regulation of an animal’s internal environment.
Describe how negative feedback, positive feedback, and feedforward regulation
contribute to the maintenance of homeostasis in animals.
Explain the importance of paracrine and hormonal signaling to homeostasis and proved
examples of each.
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NEUROSCIENCE I: CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
41.1 Cellular Components of the Nervous System




List the cellular components of the nervous system and describe the function of each cell
type.
Name the components of the central nervous system.
Explain the difference between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous
system.
Describe the functional relationships between the three different types of neurons.
41.2 Electrical Properties of the Nervous System



Explain what a membrane potential is.
Explain how the resting potential is maintained.
Identify the ions involved in nerve impulse transmission and their relative concentrations
inside and outside the neuron.
41.3 Communication Between Neurons




Compare ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels.
Explain how the action of voltage-gated channels produces an action potential.
Compare and contrast graded potentials and action potentials.
List the classes of neurotransmitters and provide brief descriptions of their generalized
functions.
41.4 Impact on Public Health


Describe the effect on the body of disorders in neurotransmission.
List several therapeutic and “recreational” drugs and describe the corresponding effects
these drugs have on the nervous system.
CHAPTER 42
NEUROSCIENCE II: EVOLUTION AND FUCTION OF THE
BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEMS
42.1 The Evolution and Development of the Nervous System


Describe the organization of the brain in vertebrates.
Describe characteristics of the human cerebrum.
42.2 Structure and Function of the Human Nervous System




Outline the detailed organization of the human nervous system.
Describe the difference between gray matter and white matter.
Describe the organization of the peripheral nervous system.
Explain the actions of sensory and somatic neurons.
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

Distinguish between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Describe differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the
autonomic nervous system.

Identify the different regions of the human hindbrain and forebrain, and briefly describe what each
region regulates or influences.
42.3 Cellular Basis of Learning and Memory



Define the terms “learning “and “memory” and describe their relationship to one another.
Compare and contrast short-term and long-term memory.
Describe several ways in which brain images are used to assess brain structure and function.
42.4 Impact on Public Health

List the Categories of Diseases affecting the Human Central Nervous System and provide
an example of each.
CHAPTER 43
NEUROSCIENCE III: SENSORY SYSTEMS
43.1 An Introduction to Sensory receptors



Define sensory transduction.
List the classes of sensory receptors and describe the stimuli to which they respond.
Explain the relationship between sensation and perception.
43.2 Mechanoreceptors







Explain how mechanoreceptors detect touch.
Distinguish between nociceptors, thermoreceptors, proprioceptors, and baroceptors.
Describe the structure of the mammalian ear and how it leads to interpretation of waves
of varying frequency as sounds.
List examples of sensory systems that use hair cells to detect stimuli.
Explain how sound waves in the environment lead to production of action potentials in
the inner ear.
Describe how hearing differs between aquatic and terrestrial animals.
Describe how body position and movement are detected by hearing-associated structures.
43.3 Thermoreception and Nociception


Explain why these types of receptors are vital to the safety and survival of an animal.
List similarities and differences between these two types of receptors.
43.4 Electromagnetic Sensing


List the types of stimuli detected by receptors involved in electromagnetic sensing.
Identify several ways animals can use electromagnetic sensing in low-light environments.
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43.5 Photoreception





Compare invertebrate and vertebrate eyes.
Describe the structure of the vertebrate eye.
Explain the process of vision in a single-lens eye.
Explain how vertebrate, and some invertebrate, eyes focuses an image.
Describe how photoreceptors respond to light.
43.6 Chemoreception



Compare and contrast the senses of taste and smell in animals, and explain why human
taste and smell is not as sensitive as those senses in many other animals.
List the five human taste categories.
Describe how taste buds and olfactory neurons function.
43.7 Impact on Public Health


List three major health issues attributable to disorders of sensory systems.
Describe the causes of the disorders listed above.
CHAPTER 44
MUSCULAR-SKELETAL SYSTEMS AND LOCOMOTION
44.1 The Types of Animal skeletons



List three important functions of a skeleton.
Compare hydrostatic skeletons, exoskeletons, and endoskeletons.
Explain how animals with hydrostatic skeletons move.
44.2 The Vertebrate Skeleton


Name the two parts of the vertebrate skeleton and give examples of bones found in each.
Describe the composition of vertebrate bone.
44.3 Skeletal Muscle Structure and the Mechanism of Force Generation






List the three types of muscle found in vertebrates and describe where they are found in
the body and the function(s) of each.
Explain the structural relationships between a myofibril, a muscle fiber, a muscle.
Draw the structure of a skeletal muscle sarcomere, labeling all relevant molecules, bands,
and zones.
Describe the events of the cross-bridge cycle and how it is controlled.
Explain the sliding filament mechanism of muscle contraction.
Describe the role of calcium in muscle contraction.
44.4 Skeletal Muscle Function
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Outline the general characteristics of the three types of skeletal muscle fibers.
Explain how muscles produce movement at joints.
Describe how antagonistic muscles work at a joint.
44.5 Animal Locomotion




Explain the mechanisms of animal location in the water, on land, and in the air,
describing the similarities and differences of each.
Describe how friction and gravity affect locomotion.
Discuss how lift is created by wings.
Explain how evolution has shaped structures used for locomotion.
44.6 Impact on Public Health


List three major health issues attributable to disorders of the human muscular-skeletal
system
Describe the causes of the disorders listed above.
CHAPTER 45
NUTRITION, DIGESTION, AND ABSORPTION
45.1 Animal Nutrition






List the four phases in the process of food use by animals.
Describe the diets of the three main nutritional categories of animals.
Name the major classes of nutrients in animals, state their functional importance, and
indentify their dietary sources.
Explain what an essential nutrient is.
Explain what a vitamin is.
List several examples of essential nutrients and vitamins, and describe consequences of
dietary deficiencies of these substances in vertebrates.
45.2 Ingestion


Specify the main dietary categories of animals.
Describe the major strategies employed by animals to obtain food.
45.3 Principles of Digestion and Absorption of food




Compare the processes intracellular and extracellular digestion, and explain why one is
far more common than the other.
Describe the differences between digestion in a gastrovascular cavity and an alimentary
canal.
Explain the importance of hydrolytic enzymes to the process of digestion.
Describe the means by which nutrients are absorbed by cells.
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45.4 Overview of Vertebrate Digestive Systems











Understand the role of the mouth in the digestive process.
Describe how food moves through the esophagus.
Explain what digestive processes take place in the stomach.
Explain how vertebrates digest cellulose.
Describe how rumination works.
Compare the structures of the small and large intestines.
Name the accessory organs and describe their roles.
Explain how absorbed nutrients move into the blood or lymph capillaries.
Compare and contrast the structures and subsequent functions of digestive systems in
representative animals like birds, ruminants, and humans.
Describe the liver’s role in digestion.
Explain the role of the pancreas in digestion.
45.5 Mechanisms of Digestion and Absorption in Vertebrates

Describe the mechanisms of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats
in vertebrates.
45.6 Regulation of Digestion


Explain how the nervous system stimulates the digestive process.
Name the three major hormones important for the regulation of digestion in vertebrates
and describe the role of each.
45.7 Impact on Public Health


List three major health issues attributable to disorders of the human muscular-skeletal
system
Describe the causes of the disorders listed above.
CHAPTER 46
CONTROL OF ENERGY BALANCE, METABOLIC RATE, AND
BODY TEMPERATURE
46.1 Nutrient Use and Storage


Name the two major groups of macromolecules absorbed by animals during the
absorptive state for use as sources of energy.
Compare and contrast the events of the absorptive and postabsorptive states.
46.2 Regulation of the Absorptive and Postabsorptive States

Explain the various ways that the body regulates an appropriate level of glucose in the
bloodstream at all times within an acceptable range.
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Explain how the pancreas acts to control blood glucose concentration.
46.3 Energy Balance




Explain the importance of regulating food intake.
Explain the basal metabolic rate and the effect of exercise.
List hormones involved in regulating appetite and body weight.
Describe the factors that determine metabolic rate, and the effect on the metabolic rate
of various tissue types due to activity.
46.4 Regulation of Body Temperature





Provide examples of how changes in temperature affect the way an animal’s body is able
to function.
List and define the four terms used to categorize organisms based on their regulation of
temperature.
Explain the four main mechanisms animals use to exchange heat with the environment.
Describe the mechanisms used by animals to alter the rate of heat exchange with the
environment.
Describe the mechanisms and adaptations demonstrated by animals to adjust to
temperature extremes.
46.5 Impact on Public Health


Define Body Mass Index (BMI) and explain how it is used to predict health risks.
List some of the health and societal issues associated with weight extremes in the human
population.
CHAPTER 47
CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS
47.1 Types of Circulatory Systems




Explain the primary function of circulation to the body of complex, multicellular animals.
Describe circulation in animals with a gastrovascular cavity, an open circulatory system
and a closed circulatory systems
Trace the path of blood flow, including gas and nutrient exchange, through one cycle of a
closed circulatory system.
Compare and contrast circulation in fish, amphibians, and mammals.
47.2 Blood and Blood Components



Describe the functions of circulating blood.
List the components of blood and describe the function of each.
Explain the process of blood clotting.
47.3 The Vertebrate Heart and Its Function
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Describe the role of the specialized cardiac cells of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular
nodes.
Explain the cardiac cycle.
47.4 Blood Vessels



Describe the four tissue layers in blood vessels.
Explain the distinctions among arteries, capillaries, and veins.
Describe the importance of the lymphatic system with respect to circulation.
47.5 Relationships Between Blood Pressure, Blood Flow, and Resistance





Define blood pressure and explain why two numbers are associated with vertebrate blood
pressure measurements.
Describe the relationship between blood flow and blood vessel diameter.
Describe the relationship between blood flow and blood pressure.
Explain the effects of vasodilation and vasoconstriction on blood flow.
Explain how resistance and increased cardiac output result in an increase in blood
pressure.
47.6 Adaptive Functions of Closed Circulatory Systems


Describe how exercise affects different aspects of vertebrate circulation.
Explain how hormones regulate blood volume.
47.7 Impact on Public Health

Describe several cardiovascular disorders, their typical causes, and medical procedures
that are intended to lessen or relieve them.
CHAPTER 48
RESPIRITORY SYSTEMS
48.1 Physical Properties of Gases




List the two gases that make up the majority of the air we breathe.
Describe the relationship between sea level and atmospheric pressure.
Explain the relationships between pressure and the solubility of gases in water.
Explain the relationships between temperature and the solubility of gases in water.
48.2 Types of Respiratory Systems


Describe the importance of ventilation to respiratory systems.
List three features common to all gas exchange surfaces in animals.
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Compare and contrast the different types of respiratory organs used by animals.
Explain the structure of fish gills, how that structure leads to gas exchange, and the
mechanisms of gill ventilation.
Explain the advantage of countercurrent flow.
Explain why lungs work better than gills in air.
Compare the mechanism of ventilation of amphibians to that of most other vertebrates.
48.3 Structure and Function of the Mammalian and Avian Respiratory Systems


Describe the structure of the mammalian lung
Compare and contrast tidal ventilation and the flow-through breathing cycle of birds.
48.4 Control of Ventilation in Mammalian Lungs


Explain the importance of chemoreceptor cells to the regulation of respiration.
Describe what happens to breathing rate if oxygen levels fall too low or carbon dioxide
levels rise too high.
48.5 Mechanisms of Oxygen Transport in Blood



Describe the role of respiratory pigments in blood of vertebrates and the hemolymph of
many invertebrates.
Explain the importance of metal ions to the function of respiratory pigments.
Describe the relationship between the amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin and the
partial pressure of oxygen in the blood.
48.6 Adaptations to Extreme Conditions


Explain the relationships between altitude, atmospheric pressure, and the partial pressure
of oxygen in the atmosphere.
List several adaptations to the circulatory and respiratory systems of animals that exist at
high altitudes or that spend time underwater.
48.7 Impact on Public Health

List examples of several respiratory system disorders, including the typical causes,
possible treatments, and impact on society.
CHAPTER 49
EXCRETORY SYSTEMS AND SALT AND WATER BALANCE
49.1 Principles of Homeostasis of Internal Fluids

Describe obligatory exchanges in animals, giving examples of substances eliminated and
how the exchanges are influenced by the animal's environment.
49.2 Principles of Fluid Filtration and Waste Excretion
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Define reabsorption and secretion.
Describe the different kinds of nitrogenous waste and their relative toxicity.
Describe how organisms are classified based on their method of osmotic regulation.
49.3 Comparative Excretory Systems


Describe invertebrate osmoregulatory organs.
Compare and contrast the means by which the different invertebrate osmoregulatory
organs facilitate obligatory exchanges.
49.4 Renal Function and Vertebrate Life History

Contrast osmotic adaptations of freshwater fish with those of marine fish.
49.5 Structure and Function of the Mammalian Kidney







Name the primary components of the kidney.
Describe the main parts of a neprhon.
Explain the significance of the loop of Henle in mammalian kidneys.
Describe the actions of filtration, reabsorption, and secretion.
Trace the changes in filtrate osmolarity through the mammalian excretory system.
Explain the actions of ADH and aldosterone.
Explain the difference between filtrate and urine.
49.6 Impact on Public Health


List several common health issues related to kidneys and osmoregulation.
Diagram the process of hemodialysis, and explain its strengths and limitations.
CHAPTER
50
ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
50.1 Mechanisms of Hormone Action and Control






Describe the role of hormones in the regulation of body processes.
Explain how a hormone produced in one organ or tissue may have effects on cells
throughout the body.
Identify the three different types of hormones and list examples of each.
List nonendrocrine sources of hormones.
Describe the cellular location of receptors for lipid-soluble hormones and of watersoluble hormones.
Compare the response of cell to the binding of a water-soluble hormone to its receptor to
that occurring when a lipid-soluble hormone binds its receptor.
50.2 Links Between the Endocrine and Nervous Systems
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Explain how the nervous system facilitates changes in hormone levels in response to
environmental stimuli.
Describe the connections between the hypothalamus, posterior pituitary, and anterior
pituitary.
Explain the role of the human hypothalamus and pituitary in regulation of endocrine
function.
50.3 Hormonal Control of Metabolism and Energy Balance




Identify the major function of thyroid hormones in adult animals.
Describe the importance of dietary iodine and iodide to the function of the thyroid gland
and thyroid hormones.
List the hormones produced by the thyroid, pancreas, and adrenal gland, and provide a
brief description of the primary role of each.
Explain why the amount of adipose tissue present can affect appetite.
50.4 Hormonal Control of Mineral Balance


Describe the components of Ca2+ homeostasis.
Explain the regulation in the kidneys of Na+ and K+ ions by antidiuretic hormone,
aldosterone, and atrial nutiuretic factor.
50.5 Hormonal Control of Growth and Differentiation



List the peptide hormones involved in the regulation vertebrates and describe the function
of each.
Describe the hormonal control of growth, and how it typically differs in vertebrates and
invertebrates.
Identify the insect hormones involved in molting and metamorphosis.
50.6 Hormonal Control of Reproduction


Explain the role of sex steroids in development.
Describe the importance of the pituitary gland to the hormonal control of reproduction.
50.7 Hormonal Responses to Stress

Name the hormones produced by the adrenal gland in response to acute and long-term
stress and describe the function of each.
50.8 Impact on Public Health


List several hormones used therapeutically and identify the disease or health problem for
which they are prescribed.
Describe the risks associated with the misuse of steroid hormones.
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51
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ANIMAL REPRODUCTION
51.1 Asexual and Sexual Reproduction


Describe the differences between sexual and asexual methods of reproduction.
List advantages and disadvantages to sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction.
51.2 Gametogenesis and Fertilization






Describe the relationship of germ cells to sperm and eggs.
Explain the importance of meiosis in the process of gametogenesis.
Compare the outcome of spermatogenesis with that of oogenesis.
Describe the advantages of internal fertilization.
Describe the different types of hermaphroditism.
Compare viviparity, oviparity, and ovoviviparity.
51.3 Mammalian Reproductive Structure and Function








Describe the sequence of events in production of an oocyte.
Describe the sequence of events in spermatogenesis.
Describe the path taken by a sperm cell from the time it is matured in the testes to the
time it is released from the body during ejaculation.
Describe the path taken by a secondary oocyte from the time it is ovulated from the ovary
to the time it is implanted in the uterus.
Explain ovulation and the female reproductive cycle.
Describe semen and explain how it is released during mating.
Explain how hormones regulate male reproductive function.
Explain how hormones regulate female reproductive function.
51.4 Pregnancy and Birth in Mammals



Describe the major developmental events in first trimester.
Describe the role of the placenta.
Explain the hormonal control of the birth process.
51.5 Timing of Reproduction with Favorable Times of Year


List advantages to synchronizing the birth of offspring to environmentally favorable
periods/
Describe several mechanisms by which animals synchronize the production of offspring
with favorable environmental conditions.
51.6 Impact on Public Health

Explain the most common causes of human infertility.
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Compare the different types of birth control and list advantages and disadvantages of
each.
CHAPTER
52
ANIMAL DEVELOPMENT
52.1 Principles of Animal Development



Define embryonic development.
Describe the process of cellular differentiation.
List the four major responses of embryonic cells to positional information in the embryo.
52.2 General Events of Embryonic Development





List the five major events that take place during embryonic development and describe the
end result of each.
Compare and contrast the fast block to polyspermy and the slow block to polyspermy.
Describe the process of cleavage, beginning at fertilization and leading into gastrulation.
Trace the fates of cells in a gastrula as they differentiate into the three major germ layers.
Outline the early development of the nervous system during neurulation.

Explain the migration and role of neural crest cells.
52.3 Control of Cell Differentiation and Morphogenesis During Animal Development



Compare and contrast autonomous and conditional specification.
Describe the importance of cytoplasmic factors daring embryonic development.
Explain how the direct contact between the plasma membranes of neighboring cells
affects embryonic development.
52.4 Impact on Public Health

Describe three commonly encountered human birth defects
CHAPTER 53
IMMUNE SYSTEMS
53.1 Types of Pathogens


List the three main types of pathogens that elicit immune responses
Describe the means by which a pathogen may damage its host organism.
53.2 Innate Immunity




List the three main innate defense mechanisms in animals.
Explain how an animal’s body surface or skin provides innate protection from pathogens.
Describe the process of phagocytosis and explain its importance in innate immune
responses.
List several cell types important in innate immunity and describe the function of each.
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Describe the inflammatory response.
53.3 Acquired Immunity




List the major classes of leukocytes, and briefly describe the function and localization
of each.
Compare and contrast the humoral immune response with the cell-mediated immune
response.
Explain how antibody structure and genetic arrangement lead to the diverse set of
antibodies found in mammals.
Describe the typical inflammatory and humoral immune responses arising from a
puncture wound which introduces bacteria inside the skin of a human.
53.4 Impact on Public Health



Describe the relationship between immune tolerance and autoimmune disease and list
examples of such diseases.
Explain the role of the immune system in allergic reactions and organ transplant
rejection.
Characterize the effects of HIV on a human immune system, and describe current
methods of treatment of HIV infection.
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AN INTRODUCTION TO ECOLGY AND BIOMES
54.1 The Scale of Ecology

Describe the focus of study of each of the four major areas of ecology.
54.2 Ecological Methods Focus on Observation and Experimentation


Describe the relationship between observations and correlations in ecological
investigation.
Explain why it is important to conduct an investigation multiple times.
54.3 The Environment’s Impact on the Distribution of Organisms


List the physical features of an environment that determine the distribution of organisms
and their abundance.
Characterize the effect of greenhouse gases on global temperature, and describe how their
increasing levels are predicted to affect natural ecosystems.
54.4 Climate and Its Relationship to Biological Communities

Explain how circulation patterns in the atmosphere affect climate and biome positioning.
54.5 Biome Types Are Determined by Climate Patterns and Other Physical Variables




Define biome.
Explain the primary factors that determine which type of biome is found in a particular
place.
Describe how climate patterns define terrestrial biomes, and provide a representative
example of each of the 10 standard classifications.
Compare and contrast the types of aquatic biomes, including the typical array of species
encountered.
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BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY
55.1 The Impact of Genetics and Learning on Behavior




Contrast the proximate and ultimate causation of behavior.
Explain why some behaviors are said to be innate (or instinctual) and provide an example
of such a behavior.
Explain how the experiences of an animal can modify its innate behaviors.
Describe the influences of genetics and learning on the process of imprinting.
55.2 Local Movement and Long-Range Migration


Define migration.
Compare and contrast orientation and navigation.
55.3 Foraging Behavior

Describe the theory of optimality and explain the relationship between energy uptake and
energy spent gathering food and protecting territory.
55.4 Communication



Explain the nature of signals used in mate attraction.
Explain the role of courtship signals in reproductive isolation.
Describe how honeybees communicate information about the location of new food
sources.
55.5 Living in Groups

Explain the possible advantages of group living.
55.6 Altruism



Explain altruism and its benefits.
Explain kin selection and inclusive fitness.
Discuss how haplodiploidy influences kin selection in eusocial insects.
55.7 Mating Systems


Compare the two forms of sexual selection seen among animals.
Compare and contrast monogamy, polygyny, and polyandry.
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POPULATION ECOLOGY
56.1 Understanding Populations


Describe methods used by ecologists to measure population density.
Describe various patterns of dispersion and reproductive strategies in populations.
56.2 Demography


Define demography.
Explain the significance of survivorship curves.
56.3 How Populations Grow






Explain how knowing the per capita growth rate helps to predict how populations will
grow.
Explain exponential growth.
Explain why populations cannot grow exponentially forever.
Define carrying capacity.
Predict the change in population size when variables such as birth rate, death rate, and
carrying capacity are known.
Compare and contrast r-selected and K-selected species.
56.4 Human Population Growth



Explain how the rate of human population growth has changed through time.
Describe the effects of age structure on future growth of a population.
Describe the concept of an ecological footprint and explain how it helps to estimate
carrying capacity.
CHAPTER 57
SPECIES INTERACTIONS
57.1 Competition





List the major types of competition.
Define niche and resource partitioning.
Explain the difference between fundamental and realized niches.
Explain how the presence of other species can affect a species’ realized niche.
Describe the competitive exclusion hypothesis and explain its importance to the diversity
of organisms found in a particular place.
57.2 Predation, Herbivory, and Parasitism

Define predation.
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Explain the effects predation can have on a population.
List mechanisms of antipredation developed by plants and animals.
57.3 Mutualism and Commensalism


Describe the differences between mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
Provide examples of the different types of mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism.
57.4 Conceptual Models


Explain the difference between the between top-down and bottom-up models.
Describe how species interactions are affected by plant biomass.
CHAPTER 58
COMMUNITY ECOLOGY
58.1 Differing Views of Communities
 Define community.
58.2 Patterns of Species Richness



Describe the relationship between latitudinal location and species richness.
Compare and contrast the various hypotheses proposed to explain patterns of species
richness.
Describe how varying levels of disturbances can affect species diversity in communities.
58.3 Calculating Species Diversity

Explain how the Shannon Diversity Index is used to calculate species diversity.
58.4 Species Diversity and Community Stability


Define ecosystem stability.
Describe the effects of species richness on ecosystem function.
58.5 Succession: Community Change


Define succession and distinguish primary versus secondary.
Describe how early colonizers may affect subsequent occurrence of other species.
58.6 Island Biogeography


Describe the species–area and species-distance relationships.
Explain how area and isolation affect rates of colonization and extinction.
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ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY
59.1 Food Webs and Energy Flow
 Describe the main trophic levels within food chains.
 Explain how energy moves through trophic levels.
 Explain why food chains are an of oversimplification of producer-consumer
relationships.
59.2 Biomass Production in Ecosystems


Compare and contrast gross primary production and net primary production.
Described the various environmental influences and limitations on primary production.
59.3 Biogeochemical Cycles


List four chemicals whose cyclic interactions are critical to organisms.
Explain human influence on the biogeochemical cycles, where appropriate.
CHAPTER 60
BIODIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
60.1 What Is Biodiversity?

Describe the three levels of biodiversity.
60.2 Why Conserve Biodiversity?

Explain the economic, ecological, and ethical reasons for preserving biodiversity.
60.3 The Causes of Extinction and Loss of Biodiversity


Describe the main causes of extinction.
Explain the means by which habitat fragmentation leads to decreased biodiversity.
60.4 Conservation Strategies

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Explain what an endemic species is.
Describe the importance of endemic species to conservation efforts to protect geographic
hot spots of biodiversity.
Explain why the equilibrium model of island biogeography can be applied to nature
reserves.
Explain the difference between restoration of species and restoration of ecosystem
functioning.
Provide examples of species that would qualify in each category of the single-species
approach to conservation.
List the strategies for habitat restoration.
BROOKER 2/e LEARNING OUTCOMES
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Explain the rationale for captive breeding programs.
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