Download Chapter 5: Current and Voltage Transformer

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Ground loop (electricity) wikipedia, lookup

Transistor wikipedia, lookup

Pulse-width modulation wikipedia, lookup

Nominal impedance wikipedia, lookup

Power inverter wikipedia, lookup

Mercury-arc valve wikipedia, lookup

Ground (electricity) wikipedia, lookup

Power engineering wikipedia, lookup

Variable-frequency drive wikipedia, lookup

Stepper motor wikipedia, lookup

Electrical ballast wikipedia, lookup

Islanding wikipedia, lookup

Immunity-aware programming wikipedia, lookup

P–n diode wikipedia, lookup

Earthing system wikipedia, lookup

Multimeter wikipedia, lookup

Schmitt trigger wikipedia, lookup

Transformer wikipedia, lookup

Electrical substation wikipedia, lookup

Resistive opto-isolator wikipedia, lookup

Rectifier wikipedia, lookup

Triode wikipedia, lookup

Distribution management system wikipedia, lookup

History of electric power transmission wikipedia, lookup

Power electronics wikipedia, lookup

Power MOSFET wikipedia, lookup

Ohm's law wikipedia, lookup

Three-phase electric power wikipedia, lookup

Current source wikipedia, lookup

Voltage regulator wikipedia, lookup

Switched-mode power supply wikipedia, lookup

Transformer types wikipedia, lookup

Opto-isolator wikipedia, lookup

Buck converter wikipedia, lookup

Surge protector wikipedia, lookup

Current mirror wikipedia, lookup

Stray voltage wikipedia, lookup

Voltage optimisation wikipedia, lookup

Alternating current wikipedia, lookup

Mains electricity wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
TESTING AND COMMISIONING
THE POWER TRANSFORMER
DET310
CHAPTER 5
CURRENT TRANSFORMER AND
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER
TESTING AND COMMISIONING
DET310
5.1 INTRODUCTION
Current or voltage instrument transformers are necessary for isolating
the protection, control and measurement equipment from the high
voltages of a power system, and for supplying the equipment with the
appropriate values of current and voltage - generally these are 1A or 5Α
for the current coils, and 120 and 240 V for the voltage coils.
-continueThe behaviour of current and voltage transformers during and after the occurrence
of a fault is critical in electrical protection since errors in the signal from a
transformer can cause mal-operation of the relays.
In addition, factors such as the transient period and saturation must be taken into
account when selecting the appropriate transformer.
5.1 Voltage Transformers
With voltage transformers (VTs) it is essential that the voltage from the secondary
winding should be as near as possible proportional to the primary voltage.
In order to achieve this, VTs are designed in such a way that the voltage
drops in the windings are small and the flux density in the core is well below the
saturation value so that the magnetization current is small; in this way
magnetization impedance is obtained which is practically constant over the
required voltage range. The secondary voltage of a VT is usually 110 or 120 V
with corresponding line-to-neutral values. The majority of protection relays have
nominal voltages of 110 or 63.5 V, depending on whether their connection is lineto-line or line-to-neutral
5.1.1
Equivalent circuits
VTs can be considered as small power transformers so that their equivalent circuit is
the same as that for power transformers, as shown in Figure 1a. The magnetization
branch can be ignored and the equivalent circuit then reduces to that shown in Fig
1b.
The vector diagram for a VT is given in Figure.2, with the length of the voltage drops
increased for clarity. The secondary voltage Vs lags the voltage Vp/n and is smaller
in magnitude. In spite of this, the nominal maximum errors are relatively small. VTs
have an excellent transient behaviour and accurately reproduce abrupt changes in.
the primary voltage.
Figure 1.0
Figure 2
5.1.2
Errors
When used for measurement instruments, for example for billing and control
purposes, the accuracy of a VT is important, especially for those values close to
the nominal system voltage.
Not withstanding this, although the precision requirements of a VT for
protection applications are not so high at nominal voltages, owing to the problems
of having to cope with a variety of different relays, secondary wiring burdens and
the uncertainty of system parameters, errors should he contained within narrow
limits over a wide range of possible voltages under fault conditions.
This range should be between 5 and 173% of the nominal primary voltage for
VTs connected between line and earth.
-continueReferring to the circuit in Figure 1a, errors in a VT are clue to differences in
magnitude and phase between Vp/n, and Vs. These consist of the errors under
open-circuit conditions when the load impedance ΖB is infinite, caused by the drop
in voltage from the circulation of the magnetization current through the primary
winding, and errors due to voltage drops as a result of the load current IL flowing
through both windings. Errors in magnitude can be calculated from
Error VT= {(n Vs - Vp) / Vp} x 100%
If the error is positive, then the secondary voltage exceeds the nominal value.
5.1.3 Burden
The standard burden for voltage transformer is usually expressed in voltamperes (VΑ) at a specified power factor.
Table 1 gives standard burdens based on ANSI Standard C57.1 3. Voltage
transformers are specified in IEC publication 186Α by the precision class, and
the value of volt-amperes (VΑ).
The allowable error limits corresponding to different class values are shown in
Table 2, where Vn is the nominal voltage. The phase error is considered
positive when the secondary voltage leads the primary voltage. The voltage
error is the percentage difference between the voltage at the secondary
terminals, V2, multiplied by the nominal transformation ratio, and the primary
voltages V1.
5.1.4 Selection of VT’s
Voltage transformers are connected between phases, or between phase and earth. The
connection between phase and earth is normally used with groups of three single-phase
units connected in star at substations operating with voltages at about 34.5 kV or higher,
or when it is necessary to measure the voltage and power factor of each phase
separately.
The nominal primary voltage of a VT is generally chosen with the higher nominal
insulation voltage (kV) and the nearest service voltage in mind. The nominal secondary
voltages are generally standardized at 110 and 120 V. In order to select the nominal
power of a VT, it is usual to acid together all the nominal VΑ loadings of the apparatus
connected to
Standard burden
Characteristics for 120 V
and 60 Hz
Characteristics for 69.3 V
and 60 Hz
design
Voltamperes
power
fa
ct
or
resistance(Ω)
inductance
(H)
impedance
(Ω)
resistance
(Ω)
inductance
(H)
impedance
(Ω)
W
12.5
0.10
115.2
3.040
1152
38.4
1.010
384
Χ
25.0
0.70
403.2
1.090
575
134.4
0.364
192
Υ
75.0
0.85
163.2
0.268
192
54.4
0.089
64
Ζ
200.0
0.85
61.2
0.101
72
20.4
0.034
24
ΖΖ
400.0
0.85
31.2
0.0403
36
10.2
0.0168
12
Μ
35.0
0.20
82.3
1.070
411
27.4
0.356
137
Table 1 Standard burdens for voltage Transformer
Class
Primary voltage
Voltage error (±%)
Phase error
(±min)
0.1
0.8 Vn , 1.0 Vn
and 1.2 Vn
0.1
0.5
0.2
10.0
0.5
0.5
20.0
1.0
1.0
40.0
0.1
1.0
40.0
1.0
40.0
0.5
1.0
40.0
1.0
2.0
80.0
0.1
0.2
80.0
2.0
80.0
0.5
2.0
80.0
1.0
3.0
120.0
0.2
0.2
0.2
0.5 Vn
Vn
Table 2 Voltage transformers error limits
5.2 Current Transformers
Although the performance required from a current transformer (CT) varies with the
type of protection, high grade CTs must always be used. Good quality CTs are
more reliable and result in less application problems and, in general, provide better
protection.
The quality of CTs is very important for differential protection schemes where the
operation of the relays is directly related to the accuracy of the CTs under fault
conditions as well as under normal load conditions.
CTs can become saturated at high current values caused by nearby faults; to
avoid this, care should be taken to ensure that under the most critical faults the CT
operates on the linear portion of the magnetization curve. In all these cases the CT
should be able to supply sufficient current so that the relay operates satisfactorily.
Design
CT conform to the normal transformer e.m.f equation where the average induced
voltage is equal to the product of the number of turns and the number of turns and the
rate of change pf magnetic flux,  . The normal design criterion is to limit the flux to
the value where saturation commences – known as the knee point flux.
The knee point voltage is
V  4.44fN

Where,
= flux density, B(tesla) x core area, s (m2 )
The knee point voltage is
V  4.44BfN
5.2.1 Equivalent circuit
An approximate equivalent circuit for a CT is given in Figure 3, where n2ZH
represents the primary impedance ZH referred to the secondary side, and the
secondary impedance is, ZL, Rm and Xm represent the losses and the excitation of
the core.
The circuit in Figure 3 can be reduced to the arrangement shown in figure 4
where ZH can be ignored, since it does not influence either the current IH/n or the
voltage across Xm. The current flowing through Xm is the excitation current Ιe.
The vector diagram, with the voltage drops exaggerated for clarity, is shown in Figure
5. In general, ZL, is resistive and Ιe lags Vs by 90°, so that Ie is the principal source
of error. Note that the net effect of Ie is to make I lag and be much smaller than ΙH /n,
the primary current referred to the secondary side.
Figure 5: Vector Diagram of CT
5.2.2 CT Errors
The causes of errors in a CT are quite different to those associated with VTs. In
effect, the primary impedance of a CT does not have the same influence
On the accuracy of the equipment it only adds an impedance in series with the
line, which can be ignored. The errors are principally due to the current which
circulates through the magnetizing branch.
The magnitude error is the difference in magnitude between ΙH / n and IL
and is equal to Ir the component of Ie in line with k (see Figure 7).
The phase error, represented by θ, is related to Iq the component of Ie which is in
quadrature with IL. The values of the magnitude and phase errors depend on the
relative displacement between Ie and IL, but neither of them can exceed the
vectorial error it should be noted that a moderate inductive load, with Ie and IL
approximately in phase, has a small phase error and the excitation component
results almost entirely in an error in the magnitude.
5.2.3 AC Saturation
CΤ errors result from excitation current, so much so that, in order to check if a CT
is functioning correctly, it is essential to measure or calculate the excitation curve.
The magnetization current of a CT depends on the cross section and length of the
magnetic circuit, the number of turns in the windings, and the magnetic
characteristics of the material.
Thus, for a given CT, and referring to the equivalent circuit of Figure 3, it can be
seen that the voltage across the magnetization impedance, Es, is directly
proportional to the secondary current. From this it can be concluded that, when the
primary current and therefore the secondary current is increased, these currents
reach a point where the core commences to saturate and the magnetization
current becomes sufficiently high to produce an excessive error.
-continueWhen investigating the behaviour of a CT, the excitation current should he
measured at various values of voltage the so-called secondary injection test.
Usually, it is more convenient to apply a variable voltage to the secondary winding,
leaving the primary winding open-circuited. Figure 4.8a shows the typical
relationship between the secondary voltage and the excitation current determined
in this way.
In European standards the point Κp on the curve is called the saturation or
knee point and is defined as the point at which an increase in the excitation
voltage of ten per cent produces an increase of 50 % in the excitation current
5.2.4 Burden
The burden on a CT is a measured of the load expressed in volt amperes (VA) at
the rated secondary current. For example, if the rated secondary current was 5A
and the impedance was 2 ohm, the burden would be:
(5 x 2) x 5 = 50 VA;
( V x A)
Referring to Figure 6, the burden was increased to , say 1000 ohm, the current
into the burden would be:
1000/11000 x 0.5 = 0.45 A’;
The 0.45 A will be divided in proportion to magnitudes of the b urden and
magnetizing impedance. Leaving 0.05 A to flow into the magnetizing impedance.
The voltage across the burden would be:
0.45 A x 1000 ohm = 450 V;
-continue-
If the burden is replaced by an open circuit, all the current would flow through the
magnetizing impedance.
The voltage across magnetizing impedance with burden open circuit:
0.5 x 10000 = 5000 V.
Consider a fault current , say 8000 A, the voltage across the magnetizing
impedance with secondary open circuited would be:
8000/2000 x 1000 = 40000 Volts.
Noted that the voltage at the CT secondary increases with increasing burden,
and rises to dangerously high levels if the secondary if open circuited.
The flux of the CT rides so much as to cause saturation.
-continueDuring saturation, voltage only appear for small portion of cycle across the
secondary of the CT.
The magnitude of peak voltage Vp developed by the CT under saturation is
given by:
Vp  2 2Vk (V f  Vk )
Volts
Where Vk= CT knee point voltage;
Vf = secondary voltage if the CT is not saturated.
For most applications, the CT must not be driven into saturation and therefore a
low burden or short connection should be connected across the CT.
Under normal operation:
IpNp = IsNs
This formula loss its relationship during saturation
5.2.5 Class and Type of CT
CT can be classified into three(3 major) categories:
• Measurement CTs
• General Purposes CTs
• Class X CTs
5.2.5.1 Measurement CTs
Measurement CTs are required to maintained specified accuracy up to 120% of
rated current, when the burden connected is equal to the rated output of the CT
For example if the rated current is 5 A, rated output of CT is 15VA, the rated
burden is
(VA) 30
  1.2 
2
I
25
-continueThus, the accuracy limit are maintained up to 120% x 5A= 1.2 ohm
Measurement CTs class are shown as:
0.1 (Lab / calibration function)
0.2 (Accurate revenue application)
0.5 (Revenue application)
1.0 (Normal application)
3.0 (Non revenue application)
5.0 (Estimate reading
5.2.5.2 General purpose Protection CTs
Protection class CTs are as below
5P5, 5P10, 5P15, 5P20, 5P30
10P5, 10P10, 10P15, 10P20, 10P30
First number – composite error / ALF
P – protection type
Second number – multiple of fault current
Protection CTs are required to maintained their accuracy class up to several times
its rated current. Accuracy classes 5P and 10P are intended to cover simpler
froms of protection such as IDMT, instantaneous and earth fault, biased
differential and etc.
The 5P and 10P is known as “accuracy limit primary current’ and the ratio of
-continue-
The 5 and 10 described as the percentage error between the ideal and the actual
secondary current when the accuracy limit current flows.
BS3938 has standardized the rated accuracy limit factors to 5, 10, 15, 20 or 30.
For example: 30 VA, 5P10 Ct:
Rated output= 30 VA, Class 5P, accuracy limit = 10
If the CT secondary rated current is 1A;
The rated burden=
(VA)
I2
since
I 2 Z  VA
=30/1 = 30 
; 10 A(1A x accuracy-limit factor) can flow before accuracy is
lost.
This is equivalent to an output of
102 x 30 =3000 VA;
-continueThe voltage before the CT lost its accuracy is:
10A x 30  = 300 V;
If now the burden is reduced to, say 10
accuracy is lost would be
300 V/ 10

, the current which would flow before
=30 A;
The rated accuracy factor has risen to 30. Thus accuracy limit factor and load
(burden) are interrelated (inversely).
5.2.5.3 Class X CTs
BS 3938 defines class X CTs as required for special purpose applications. The
performances specification is defined in terms of the following characteristics:
• rated primary current.
• turns ratio (with an error not exceeding 1.25%)
• rated knee-point EMF at maximum secondary turns.
• maximum exciting current at rated-knee point EMF
• resistance of the secondary winding at 75 degrees Celcius.
Class X Cts are usually applied when a high knee point is required to avoid
saturation of the core. In protection context, they are usually categorised into two
classes:
• Class A – designed to transform accurately without saturation up to a maximum
fault current.
• Class B – for high impedance circulating current.
Figure 6:
TESTING AND COMMISIONING
DET310